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GERMAN 
POSTERS 

IN BELGIUM 

Their Value as Evidence 



New Texts and Documents 
with a Foreword to the Reader 

By 

HENRI DAVIGNON 




THOMAS NELSON & SONS, LTD.. 

35 & 36 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON, B.C.4. 

EDINBURGH. NEW YORK. PARIS. 

1918 

PrU€ One Shilling Net, 



GERMAN POSTERS 
IN BELGIUM 

THEIR VALUE AS EVIDENCE 

NEW TEXTS AND DOCUMENTS 

With a Foreword to the Reader by 
HENRI DAVIGNON 




!Dieses Haus ist 
zu Schiitzen 

Es isl streng verbolen, ohne 
GeneimHgung (ier Komman- \ 
(laiitui', Hauser zu belreten 
oflep in Brand zusetzen. 

^^^ Kaiserliches Oarnison^Konmiando, 

It m i a- t ar MaiMiJMMiMilSMMi r i i^ n i lirt . iM ifi ii ii i i i i»i fiiii f «i. - . — . — — — - — — ■ 



THOMAS NELSON & SONS, LTD., 

35 & 36 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON. E.C.4. 

EDINBURGH. NEW YORK PARIS. 



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CONTENTS 

FOREWORD - vu 

THE INVASION AND FALSE PROMISES. 

German Promises and "Regrets" - - - - 3 
How THE Belgian Army "Did its Duty." German 

EVIDENXE 5 

How THE Belgians were Asked to Behave - - 7 

The So-called "Francs-tireurs" of Dixant - - 13 

How the Inhabitants of Brussels Remain Worthy 

of their Burgomaster. German Testimony - 15 

How Von der Goltz' Promises were Carried Out - 17 

The "Interpretation" of a German Promise - - 21 

A Topical Sermon by Cardinal Mercier - - - 23 

THE ATROCITIES AT ANDENNE. 

Indictment by the Bishop of Namur - - - 27 

The Truthfulness of the Reports of the Belgian 
Commission of Inquiry Demonstrated by a 

German Poster 29 

The German "Inquiries" at Andenne - - - 32 

Famine after Massacre ------ 35 

Massacre and Looting are Succeeded by a Policy 

OF Demoralisation - 37 

Statistics of Civilian Massacres in Belgium - - 39 

How the Landsturm Amused Themselves - - 41 

The Bridge of Andenne and the Reason for the 

Massacres - 43 

A Rival for Commandant Becker at Namur - - 45 

Effects of the Reign of Terror - - - - 47 

A Real German Inquiry at Huy - - - - 49 

Two AND A Half Years Later - - - - 51 

iii 



381506 



iv CONTENTS 

Pag$ 

THE REIGN OF TERROR AND OF ARBITRARY 
MEASURES. 
Collective Responsibility : The Treatment of 

Hostages 55 

Arbitrary Measures Authorised by the German 

Superior Command 57 

Arbitrary Justice and the Death Penalty - - 59 
How the Germans Treat an Open Town - - 61 

Collective Responsibility : Fines, Deportation, 

Incendiarism 63 

Belgium a Prison 65 

Collective Responsibility of Communes - - - 67 
The Civil Population made Responsible for Military 

Operations - - -69 

Appeals to Informers 71 

Patriotism of Families Punished as a Crime - - 73 
Belgian Patriotism Does Not Fear Death - - 75 
The Reply of the Young Belgians - - - 77 

The "Deportation" to Germany of the Deposits 

OF the Banque Nationale - - - • . 81 

THE CAMPAIGN OF LIES DESIGNED TO SAP THE 
NATIONAL MORAL. 

How the Germans Suppress the Truth : The De- 
portation OF Burgomaster Max - - - 85 

Fate of a Belgian Newspaper Subjected to German 

Censorship --- 8y 

An Imperial Slander and its Effect - - - 89 

The Aim of the "News Published by the German 

Government" 91 

A German Account of the Battle of the Marne - 93 

The Germans "Explain" the Bombardment of 

Rheims Cathedral 95 

How the Germans Described the Battle of the Yser 98 

A REGIME OF Lies loi 

A German Version of the Battle of Ypres - - 103 

A Scrap of Paper 105 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



THE INVASION AND FALSE PROMISES. 



Pag* 



Proclamation by General von Emmich (August 4th, 

1914) 2 

Proclamation by General Leman (August 4th, 1914) - 4 
Notice by the Burgomaster of Liege (August 5th, 

1914; -• - _ . 6 

Proclamation by the Burgomaster of Dinant 

(August 3rd, 1914) 12 

Proclamation by Burgomaster Max (August, 1914) - 14 
Proclamation by Field-Marshal Baron von der 

GoLTZ (September 2nd, 1914) - - - - 16 

Notice by Baron von Luttwitz (September 

i6th, 1914) 20 

Notice by Lieutenant-General Hurt (July 12th, 1916) 22 

THE ATROCITIES AT ANDENNE. 

Proclamation by General von Bulow (August 22nd, 

1914) 26 

Poster Published by Order (August 21st, 1914) - 28 

Proclamation by the Military Commander (August 

22nd, 1914) -- 30 

Food Notice Issued by the Military Commander 

(August 23rd, 1914) ------ 34 

Notice by Major Scheunemann, announcing a French 

Defeat (August 23rd, 1914) ----- 36 

Letter from "La Maison des Ouvriers Andennais" 

(August 24th, 1 9 15) - - - - - - 38 

Proclamation by Captain Schultze (August 25th, 1914) 40 

Captain Schultze's Farewell (August 28th, 1914) - 42 

Proclamation by Captain Becker (August 29th, 1914) 44 
Proclamation Issued by the Provisional Communal 

Administration (August 30th, 1914) - - - 46 

Proclamation by Captain Becker (undated) - - 48 
Census Notice Published by Order of the Military 

Authorities (October 2nd, 1914) - - - - 5® 

v 



vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

THE REIGN OF TERROR AND OF ARBITRARY 
MEASURES. 
Appeal by the Provisional Communal Authorities 

OF LouvAiN (October 4th, 1914) - - - 54 

Extract from an Order of the Day of the 24TH 

German Reserve Division (August 23rd, 1914) - 56 

Notice by Sergeant Hamich at Mont-Saint-Guibert 

(October 5th, 1914) ------ 58 

Proclamation by General von Beseler at Antwerp 

(October loth, 1914) - - - - - - 60 

Notice by the Kommandantur at Deynze (November 

2nd, 1914) -* - - - -. - - - 62 

Notice by Baron von Luttwitz at Brussels (Septem- 
ber 13th, 1914) - - 64 

Proclamation by Baron von der Goltz (September 

25th, 1914) - 66 

Notice by Baron von der Goltz (September 30th, 1914) 68 

Notice by the German Military Administration at 

MoNS (November i6th, 1914) - - - - 70 

Notice by Baron von der Goltz (October 7th, 1914) - 72 

Notice by Baron von Bissing (January 26th, 1915) - 74 

Notice by the German Governor of Brussels (April, 

1915) - - - - - - - - - 76 

Notice by Lieutenant-Colonel Bleyhoffer at St. 

Trond (September 6th, 1914) - - - - 78 
Order by Baron von der Goltz (October 3rd, 1914) 7S 

THE CAMFAIGN OF LIES DESIGNED TO SAP THE 
NATIONAL MORAL. 

Denial by Burgomaster Max (August 30th, 1914) - 84 

Notice suspending the Paper "L'Ami de l'Ordre" 

(end^November, 1914) ------ 86 

War News Published by the German Government — 

The Kaiser's Telegram to President Wilson - 88 

Specimen of War News - - - - - 90 

A "Taube" over Paris - - - - - 92 

The Equipment of the English Army - - 94 

The Capture of Antwerp ----- 96 

The Fortresses of Toul and Verdun - - 100 

The "Love-Gifts" of the German Soldier - 102 

Proclamation by Order at Lokeren (October 24th, 

1914) - . . ----- 104 



FOREWORD 



THE collection of texts and documents which we published 
in June, 1915, under the title of Belgium and Germany, 
was well received by unprejudiced people in all countries. 
Photographic evidence is irresistible. We were struck with 
the attention paid to the German posters which we had been 
able to collect, and of which we reproduced the most important. 
Better even than the works of the German war theorists or 
the diaries of officers and soldiers, these placards of the authori- 
ties show up the system of false promises, lying statements, 
and terrorism which characterised the invasion and occupation 
of Belgian territory. By such documents the responsibility of 
Germany is more directly involved. Orders, notices, official 
inquiries, are irrefutable witnesses whose voices cannot be 
stifled. To-day the walls of the towns and villages of Belgium 
repeat their evidence, and even when the weather has partially 
destroyed it, the torn remains are still sufficient to uphold the 
accusation. 

While awaiting the pubHcation of a complete collection, it 
may be useful to reproduce some photographs of these docu- 
ments, so as to confirm and extend the impression made by 
the former pubHcation. 

Our readers will find here, grouped in four sections, about 
fifty posters, but few of which have yet been pubhshed. They 
were all posted up in Belgium during the first year of the war. 
They need no comment. It is well, however, to remember 
that they are simply specimens of the German "manner." 
By way of contrast, and to bring a httle pure air into the 
noxious atmosphere of lying and cruelty which they create, 
we have introduced here and there a few Belgian posters which 
bear the stamp of purest patriotism and the most splendid 
energy. One must not confuse these posters, signed "Leman" 

vii 



viii FOREWORD 

or "Max," with others beneath which appear the names of 
some officials of Belgian communes obtained under God knows 
what threats. These last are purely German posters. 

A perusal of this coUectiun* will serve to illustrate the 
methods of the barbaric invader. 

They range from fallacious promises to the most deUberate 
slander, uassing through the whole gamut of cynicism and 
arbitrary violence. 

At the moment when the German Army crossed the frontier 
von Emmich issued a proclamation — evidently prepared long 
before — which is contradicted by the terms of che ultimatum, 
the proclamation of von Biilow and the Wolff communique. 
Immediately after he installed himself at Brussels, Marshal 
von der Goltz gave formal assurances to the population, to 
which the deportations of to-day form an appalling contrast. 
At Deynze, at Mons, and especially at Andenne, collective 
reprisals, "preventive" massacres, and the taking of hostages, 
who were condemned in advance, are clearly substantiated. 
The whole collection of German posters at Andenne offers a 
complete picture of the reign of terror following on assassination. 

But perhaps the arbitrary and vexatious conduct of the 
miUtary occupation in Belgium is shown up even better by 
those posters which consist of orders relating to civiUans, 
holding them responsible for the movements of the Army, 
punishing parents for the patriotism of their sons, and offering 
direct incentives to denunciation. On the other hand, nothing 
is more characteristic of German procedure than the false news 
posted on the walls, in the childish hope of demoralising and 
disheartening the population. 

There is no doubt that the effect was quite the reverse of 
that desired. These moral manoeuvres had no more success 
in Belgimn than terrorism. In spite of the blood and tears 
and destruction which they involved, all the former measures 
seem insignificant in comparison with the wholesale deporta- 
tions of able-bodied men, the last resource of German power 

• opposite these photographs we have given a series of German and Belgian 
documents. The juxtaposition tells its own story. 



FOREWORD ix 

which has failed in the attempt to seduce their souls. Humanity, 
even it tempted to doubt the stories of German barbarism in 
Belgium, is obliged to accept the evidence supplied by the 
measures in force to-day in our unhappy country. 

In tiiming over the pages of this collection, the reader will 
conclude that a people capable of resisting the trials of which 
these placards are only a partial illustration will rise superior 
to the new sufferings by which its tormentor seeks to over- 
whelm it. But there is another conclusion which forces itself 
on those who watch the fate of our country with horror and 
pity. It is impossible that any one should remain indifferent 
to this crime. No one has the right to say that, as far as 
Belgium is concerned, any peace can be thought of which 
does not exact a material and moral reparation proportionate 
to the responsibihty of the guilty and to the martyrdom of 

the innocent victim. 

Henri Davignon. 



P.S. — Most of these posters have been lent to us by Monsieur 
Jean Massart, Professor at the University of Brussels and author 
of a remarkable work on occupied Belgium, entitled Belgians under 
the German Eagle. He possesses the originals. 

I am also deeply indebted to Monsieur L^on van der Essen, 
Professor at the University of Louvain and author of The Invasion 
and the War in Belgium, from Liige to the Yser, for having kindly 
chosen and verified the documents quoted in this book. 

H.D. 



I. 



THE INVASION AND FALSE 
PROMISES 



PROCLAVATlOlN DISTRIBUTED BY GENERAL VON EMMICH'S 

TROOPS AND POSTED UP IN THE FRONTIER COMMUNES 

ON AUGUST 4TH. 1914. 

An Peuple Beige! 



C'est i mon plus grand regret que les troupes AlienaMlM se vsieiit forUt9 i$ 
f^anchir ia frontiers de la Belgique. EUes agissent sous la contrainte (funt nteessitt ia- 
ivitable ia neutrality de la Belgique ayant tft d6j& vioi6e par des Mders frau^ qi^ 
sous un d^guisement, aient traverse la terrjtiilre beige en automoUff pour^ pMMrer ca 
Allem^ne. 

Bel net! C'est notn plus grand dftsir qu'il | ait encors ■oyn ifftiitir un eonfit ntn km 
peuplsi qui ^talent amii jusqu i present, jadii i)6me alli^i. Eouieiez von du glorta jov ds 
Waterloo ou citaient lei armes alleiniiidei qui oit contrlbu^ ii fonder et 6tablir I'liirifipwdince it'll 
prosp^rit^ de voire patrie. 

Mais it nous fautlecbeminlibre. Des destructions deponts, de tunneb, de voles 
ferries devront etre regard^es comme des actions hostiles. Beiges, vous am h eboisir, 

Jespire done que TArm^e allemande de la ffleuse ne sera pas contrainte deious 
combattre. Un cbemin libra pour attaquer celui qui vouiait nous attai|uftr, c'est toot ee 
que nous d^sirons. 

Je donne des garantles formelles k la populatlei^ beige qu'elie 
n'aura rien a souffrir des horreurs de la guerre; que nous payerons en 

or monnaye les vivres qu1l faudra prendre du pays; que nes soMali ^ 
mentreroAt las meillettrs amis dm peuple pour leqoel nous eprouions la ptusliaute esflme, 
la plt» grande sjmpathie. 

C'est de votre sagesse et d'un patrletlsme 
blen compris qu'll depend d'Avlter A voire 
pays les horreurs de la guerroi 

Le GAi&*al Coamaiidairt en Chef rArmte ie ii leiee 
von Emenich. 

It will be noticed thai, cU the very time this proclamation was distributed, 
civilians had already been killed near Verviers and at Herve. The proclamation 
had been prepared long before, and the reply of Belgium to the ultimatum of 
August 2nd was not foreseen. 



GERMAN PROMISES AND " REGRETS." 

PROCLAMATION BY GENERAL VON BULOW. 

'•To the Belgian Nation! 

"We have been obliged to enter Belgian territory in order to safeguard 
the interests of our national defence. 

"We are fighting the Belgian Army solely in order to force a passage 
into France, which your Government wrongly refused us, although it 
tolerated a French mihtary reconnaissance, a fact of which your newspapers 
have kept you in ignorance. 

"The peaceful population of Belgium is not our enemy; on the 
contrary, and we will treat it with understanding for its susceptibilities 
and with kindness, provided that, by its acts, it gives proof of its 
peaceful sentiments. But we will deal severely with any attempt on the 
part of the population to offer resistance to the German troops, or to do injury 
to our mihtary interests. 

"Given at Montjoie, August 9th, 1914. 

" The General Commanding-in-Chief the 2nd Army, 

•'VON BULOW." 

{6th Reports of the Belgian Commission of Inquiry.) 

"The German Government most deeply regrets that the Belgian 
Government's attitude towards Germany has led to encounters involving 
bloodshed. Germany is not coming as an enemy into Belgium. . . . The 
German Government is ready for any agreement with Belgium which is in 
any way compatible with the measures it has been compelled to adopt against 
France. Germany gives once more her solemn assurance that she has not been 
animated by the intention of appropriating Belgian territory for herself, and 
that such an intention is far from her thoughts." 

{Extract from the peace offer made to Belgium on August 9th, 1914. — 
First Belgian Grey Book, No. 62.) 



TRANSLATION. 

TO THE BELGIAN NATION! 

"I feel the greatest regret that the German troops find themselves obliged 
to cross the frontier of Belgium. They act according to the dictates of 
inevitable necessity, Belgian neutrality having been already violated by 
disguised French officers who crossed the Belgian territory in a motor car 
in order to penetrate into Germany. 

' ' Belgians ! It is our greatest wish that means may still be found to 
avoid war between two peoples which up to the present time have been friends, 
and formerly even alUes. Remember the glorious day of Waterloo, when 
German arms contributed to found and estabUsh the independence and 
prosperity of your country. 

"But we must have free passage. The destruction of bridges, tunnels 
and railway lines will have to be regarded as hostile acts. 

"Belgians, you must make your choice. 

"I hope that the army of the Meuse will not be obhged to fight you. A 
free passage to attack those who wished to attack us is all we ask. 

"I give formal guarantees to the Belgian population that it will not have 
to suffer any of the horrors of war ; that we will pay in gold for the food it will 
be necessary to take in the country ; that our soldiers will show themselves 
the best friends of a people for whom we feel the highest esteem and the 
greatest sympathy. 

"It depends upon your wisdom and understanding patriotism to avoid 
for your country the horrors of war. 

"The General Commanding-in-Chief, 
" The Army of the Meuse, 

" VON EMincH." 



PROCLAMATION BY GENERAL LEMAN AFTER THE VIOLATION 
OF THE FRONTIER BY THE GERMANS.— AUGUST 4TH, 1914. 



AUX HABITANTS 



DU 



PAYS DE LEGE 



La grande Allemagne envahit noire lerritoire apres 
lin ultimatDm qni constitue on ootrage. 

La petite Belgique a releve fi^rement le ganl 

L'armee va faire son devoir ! 

La popnlation dn pays de Li6ge accomplira le sien ! 

Anssj ne cessera-t-elle de donner I'exemple du calme 
et du respect anx lois. 

Son ardent patriotisme en ripond. 

Vive le Roi, commandant en chef de l'armee ! 

Vive la Belgiqne ! 

Le Lieuten&nt-GAndral 
Gouvemeur Militaire de Li^ge, 

LEMAN. 

Li6ge, le 4 Aoat 1914. 

LiAge. - laprUnMl* LA MEnSE- 



The character of the gallant defender of Liege is well illustrated by the dignity 
and reticence of this proclamation. 



HOW THE BELGIAN ARMY "DID ITS DUTY." 

GERMAN EVIDENCE. 

"The fortress of Li^ge has been taken by assault after a brave 
defence. ... 

"Now that the Belgian Army has upheld the honour of its 

arms in the most briUiant manner by its heroic resistance to a very 

superior force, the German Government beg the King of the Belgians 

and the Belgian Government to spare Belgium the horrors of war." 

[Extract from the peace offer made to Belgium on 

August gth, 1914.) 

"Whoever asserts that the Belgian soldier is a coward has 
never iearnt to know him. The Belgians know very well that they 
can do nothing against us, and that they can expect no reinforce- 
ments. They defend themselves, nevertheless, with such spirit 
that we only succeed very rarely in dislodging them from what 
they hold, and then at the cost of the greatest sacrifices. We 
thought, at the beginning, to make but one mouthful of them, but 
we must face the facts ; we have not finished with them yet." 

{Extract from a diary of a soldier of the 48/A German Regiment 
of Infantry of the Reserve, taken prisoner at Elewijt in September, 1914.) 



TRANSLATION. 

TO THE INHABITANTS OF THE DISTRICT 
OF LIEGE. 

"Powerful Germany invades our territory after an ultimatum 
which is tantamount to an outrage. 

"Little Belgium has proudly picked up the gauntlet. 

"The Army will do its duty ! 

"The population of Li6ge will also fulfil theirs ! 

"They will not cease to give an example of calm and respect 
for law. 

"Their fervent patriotism is a guarantee of this. 

"Long live the King, Commander and General of the Army! 

"Long live Belgium! 

"Leman, 

" Lieutenant-General. Governor of Li^e. 

"Lidge, August 4ih, 1914-" 

5 



NOTICE BY THE BURGOMASTER OF LifiGE TO HIS FELLOW- 
CITIZENS CONCERNING THEIR DUTIES IN THE EVENT OF WAR. 

VILLE DE LIEGE 



Li^ge, le 5 AoAt 1914. 

LE BOURGMESTRE A SES CONCITOYENS, 



Je crois utile de vous communiquer ci-aprto le texte dune circulaire que je viens de rece- 
voir de M. le Ministre de I'lnWrieur. et qui rtgle les droits et les devpirs des habitants en 
cas d'occupation 6trang6re 

J'attire toute votre attention sur les indications contenues dans oe document, qui vous 
servira eventuellement de guide si le malheur voulait que notre ville Itit occup6e par 
Varmto envahissante. 

Le Bourgmestre, 



6. KLETER 



CIRCULAIRE AUX AUTORTItS COMMUNALES 




^lES^ 



tim, uuvEt. 



The circular of M. Berryer, Minister of the Interior, was sent on August ^th 
to all the communes of the kingdom. 



TRANSLATION. 



TOWN OF LILGE. 



" Liige, August <^th, 1914. 

"THE BURGOMASTER TO HIS FELLOW-CITIZENS. 

"I consider that it is fitting to communicate to you herewith 
the text of a circular that I have just received from the Minister 
of the Interior, in which he lays down the rights and duties of the 
inhabitants in case of a foreign occupation. 

" I call your earnest attention to the instructions contained in 
this circular, which will serve as a guide for your conduct in case our 
town is unfortunately occupied by the invading army. 

"Burgomaster G. Kleyer." 



Order sent on August 4th, 1914, by the Minister of the 
Interior of Belgium to the Communal Authorities. 

Brussels, 

August 4th, 1914. 
"Gentlemen, 

"The German Army has invaded this country in violation of the treaties 
guaranteeing our neutrality, 

"The Belgian Government has decided to fulfil the obligations which it 
has undertaken on its own part in those treaties. From the present moment 
it is making preparations to use all the means at its disposal. 

"In fulfilling this undertaking with the aid of the Army, it feels certain 
that all Belgians, who are so profoundly attached to their own country, to 
their independence and to their King, who in his own person represents them, 
will gather round him and afford him their most devoted assistance. 

"In the circumstances which have actually occurred the communal 
authorities will have a task which will sometimes be difficult, but always one 
of importance. 

"According to the laws of war, these authorities are not Hke political 
officials, who are compelled by the presence of hostile armies to withdraw from 
the country in most cases. The communal authorities, on the contrary, 
will continue to remain in their homes and to exercise their official duties for 
the benefit of the inhabitants. They will only rehnquish these duties if the 
invader should attempt to impose actions upon them which would be in direct 
opposition to their duties of loyalty to their I^ng and country. 

"The hostile invasion will cause disturbance and disorder among the 
people. The first care of the communal authorities will be to instruct those 
under them in the duties of all towards their country, and in the way in which 
they will have to behave when faced by the invading army. 

"This is the object of the present order. 

"So long as the enemy troops shall not have entered on the soil of the 
commune the mayor will use the utmost expedition in transmitting to the civil 
and miUtary authorities all news that comes to him of the march and approach 
of the invader. He will execute with accuracy and dispatch the orders received 
by him from the authorities, and will render to them all assistance required 
by them in the organisation of the National Defence. 

"The movements of all enemy soldiers, whether of single soldiers or of 
troops, shall be forthwith notified to the nearest mihtary authority. It goes 



without saying that local authorities, as well as all the inhabitants in general, 
will absolutely refuse to supply any information which may be asked for by 
enemy soldiers as to the situation or movements of the Belgian Army. 

"Acts of Hostility. — According to the laws of war, acts of hostihty — that 
is to say, resistance and attack by arms, the use of arms against single enemy 
soldiers, or direct intervention in any battle or engagement — are never per- 
mitted to those who' are not (either as members of the Army or Civil Guard 
or of a Volunteer Corps organised under miUtary law) under the command of 
a superior officer and do not wear a distinctive uniform or badge. 

"Those who are authorised to commit acts of hostility are entitled to be 
treated as belligerents, and when they are captured or lay down their arms 
they have the right to treatment as prisoners of war. 

"If the population of a territory which has not yet been occupied by the 
enemy takes up arms of its own accord on the approach of the invader without 
having had time to organise itself in a military form, it will be considered as 
belligerent if it bears arms openly and conforms to the laws of war. 

"A single individual who does not belong to any of these classes of 
belUgerent and who should commit an act of hostility would not be considered 
or treated as a belligerent. If he is taken he would be treated with greater 
severity than a prisoner of war, and might even be put to death. 

"With all the more reason the inhabitants of the country are bound to 
abstain from acts forbidden even to soldiers. The most noticeable of these 
acts are the use of poison or poisoned arms ; killing or wounding treacherously 
members of the army or nation of the invaders ; killing or wounding an enemy 
who, either having laid down his arms or having no longer any means of self- 
defence, has surrendered unconditionally. 

"Passage of the Army. Requisitions. — In the case of a passage of enemy 
troops in places where there are no detachments of the Belgian Army, the 
commanders of the hostile army will abstain in all probability from all acts of 
hostihty, and will only claim board and lodging. The laws of war only allow 
this kind of requisition or the personal service of the inhabitants for the imme- 
diate requirements of troops, and only so far as is consistent with the available 
resources of the locality, and the inhabitants cannot be forced to engage in any 
mihtary operations. If they are not paid in cash they must be furnished with 
receipts for what they provide. If the inhabitants refuse to obey these 
requisitions there can be no doubt but they will be procured by force. This 
would cause the population still greater suffering. The commanding officers 
will in most cases apply to the communal authorities, and these latter should 
do their best to secure an equitable distribution of the requisitions among the 
inhabitants so as to lighten the expenses. 

"If in making requisitions the rules indicated above are not observed, 
the communal authorities will protest to the military chiefs and will only act 
under compulsion. 

"Apart from these requisitions, the inhabitants have a right to the absolute 
rcbpect of their private property, of their honour, and of their persons and the 
persons of their family. If the officers or soldiers of the enemy make any 
attempt on these the communal authorities will make an energetic protest. 

"The invader will take possession of the means of transport, the railways, 
the telegraphs and the telephones, unless the local authorities are able to 
prevent him. 

"The regulation concerning the laws of war adopted by the Powers at 
The Hague in 1907 forbids a belligerent to force the inhabitants to give informa- 
tion about the army of their country or their means of defence. The inhabitants 
should know that they have the right to refuse to make known anything about 
these matters to the invader, and that this refusal is binding on them in the 
interests of their country. 

"Formerly some of the Powers made reservations with regard to the 
apphcation of this rule, and it is therefore possible that it may not be 
adopted so far as concerns guides, who, according to the ancient customs of 
war, are taken by the troops from amongst the inhabitants in their march 
across an enemy country. The inhabitants of the commune will only serve as 
guides when compelled by force to do so. 

8 



"Spies and Enemy Agents. — The communal authorities will put those 
under them on their guard against spies and enemy agents who will come into 
the country for the purpose either of collecting information about the National 
Army or for stirring up demonstrations amongst the inhabitants, perhaps even 
in favour of the enemy. 

"It is obvious that all such demonstrations should be stopped and 
absolutely forbidden. The people must hold severely aloof from any demon- 
stration that is not an expression of loyalty to their King and country. The 
presence of agents of this kind should be notified at once to the Belgian mihtary 
chiefs and to the nearest civil authorities, and the agents themselves should 
be arrested and handed over to the authorities if they can be secured before 
the arrival of enemy troops. 

' ' Fighting in the Commune. — If a battle takes place within the territory of 
the commxune between enemy troops and Belgian troops, the communal 
authorities and the inhabitants will give their assistance to the National Army, 
but will abstain from any direct personal intervention in the battle, which would 
involve their being treated with greater severity than the soldiers themselves. 

"The military operations and fighting will cause damage to private 
property, to the inhabitants and to the crops, which it is impossible to prevent. 
This must be borne as an inevitable consequence of the invasion. But beyond 
what is demanded by the necessities of attack and defence, private propert}- 
may neither be destroyed nor seized. If any excess of this sort is committed, 
the communal authorities have the right to make a sharp and formal protest 
to the military commanders who have ordered or allowed pillage or destruction. 

"The inhabitants will fulfil a duty of patriotism in giving aid as far as 
possible to the wounded during and after the battles. The communal 
authorities will undertake the organisation of this aid in co-operation with the 
doctors and the agents of the Red Cross. It will be impossible to object to 
pubUc buildings being used as hospitals, if that be indispensable. Places 
occupied by the wounded are entitled to respect from all the combatants ; still 
more strictly is it forbidden to abuse the distinctive marks of the Red Cross. 
Those marks consist of a Red Cross on a white flag or armlet. 

"Permanent Occupation. — The hostile army will probably occupy in a 
permanent way places situated on their lines of communication, and they will 
extend this occupation according to the requirements of mihtary operations. 
A territory is only considered to be occupied which is in fact under the authority 
of the hostile army, which must in effect be settled on the spot and in a position 
to drill there by reason of the absence of the National Army. 

"The State officials will only be able to carry out their duties so far as 
they are not prevented by the hostile authority. But the communal authorities 
must remain at home and continue the administration of the commune. They 
will only cease to do so when the occupying authority compels them to take 
an oath of allegiance to the enemy Power or to engage in hostilities against 
their country or to enter into some agreement which would not be in accord 
with their loyalty to the Belgian Eang and Government, which always remains 
their only legitimate Government. 

"The communal authorities will thus be necessarily in daily communica- 
tion with the hostile authority. The latter, being in possession of power, will 
be bound to take all such measures as result from this position to secure order 
and the public life. The laws in force in the occupied district will be applied ; 
they can only be altered or abrogated in cases where it is impossible to enforce 
them. 

"If any attempts are made by the enemy troops, either encamped or on 
march, against the honour or rights of families or against the life of individuals 
or against private property, against religious beliefs or the exercise of public 
worship, the local authoriti'es will communicate with the enemy authority 
with a view to putting an immediate end to all such attempts. 

"The mayor will take particular care \o maintain order and security in 
his commune. If necessary, he will ask the hostile authorities to support him 
by main force. If any reprehensible action be committed against the enemy, 
the communal authorities cannot be held answerable as a body and collective 
penalties by fine or otherwise cannot be enforced on the whole population. 



"The court of mayor and aldermen will continue to collect the communal 
taxes, and will use them in defraying the cost of administration of the commune. 

"The army of occupation can only seize money funds and bills due, and 
the arms and movable property of the State of such a nature as to be of use in 
the warlike operations. The goods of the communes, and religious, charitable, 
beneficent and educational establishments must be treated as private property, 
and consequently must be held free from confiscation or damage. 

"If the authorities of the enemy in occupation collect the taxes, dues, or 
payments which belong by right to the State they must do so, as far as possible, 
in accordance with the regulations in force, and apply the receipts from these 
sources to such costs of administration as were properly paid by the Belgian 
Government. They cannot make any other demands for money except for 
the needs of the army or the expenses of administration of the occupied 
territory, and that only on the written order of a general in command. 
Requisitions in kind for the requirements of the troops or requisitions for 
service allowed by the rules indicated above, can only be made on the authority 
of the commanding officer. They must not exceed the resources of the locaUty 
nor involve the inhabitants in any obligation to take part in mihtary operations 
against their own country. Under the latter heading would be classed any 
requisition for workmen to take part in erecting fortification works or assisting 
the operations of the hostile army. 

"If roads and bridges have been destroyed before the invasion in order 
to impede the movements of the hostile army, the inhabitants shall only assist 
in repairing them under compulsion. 

"Requisitioned suppUes should be paid for as far as possible in cash, 
otherwise they should be certified through the mayors by receipts which should 
be settled in Hke manner as soon as possible. 

"During the occupation, the railways, telegraphs and telephones will 
probably remain under the exclusive control of the enemy authorities, who 
will in such case reserve to themselves the right of deciding the conditions 
under which their use will be allowed to private individuals. The local 
authorities will not be allowed to interfere. 

"Mayors of occupied territory will remain in communication with the 
nearest authority of the National Government to such extent as the invader 
will allow. In their official reports they will only deal with matters connected 
with their administrative duties, and will make no allusion to movements of 
hostile troops or to anything relating to mihtary operations. 

"Where territory has been occupied by the enemy, their authorities will 
be very severe in repressing espionage. The definition of a spy is one who 
secretly or under false pretences seeks to gather information within the zone 
of operations of a beUigerent with a view to communicating such information 
to the other side. 

"The suppression of espionage is very severe. The communal authorities 
must in their behaviour avoid giving any occasion for incurring this charge, 
but they should also bear in mind that the treatment meted out to spies can 
only be inflicted when secrecy is used in obtaining information. Soldiers and 
civihans who collect or report news, even within the zone of mihtary operations, 
cannot be treated as spies so long as they do their business without disguising 
their character. 

"When the occupation ceases by the actual departure of the enemy 
authorities, the communal authorities will notify forthwith the nearest Belgian 
mihtary authorities. 

"During the occupation by the enemy the communal authorities will lose 
no opportunity of reminding those under them that the rules of conduct set 
forth above have for their sole end the amehoration of the expenses and hard- 
ships inevitably resulting from war and invasion ; but that they must not be 
understood as impl5dng any approval of this invasion or releasing the people 
from their duty of loyalty to the legitimate Government which remains in 
full force throughout the period of the war. 

"The Minister of the Interior, 

"Paul Berryer." 

lO 



HOW THE BELGIAN CIVILIANS GAVE AN UNDERTAKING TO 
CONDUCT THEMSELVES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RULES 
FOR NON-COMBATANTS. 



Notice issued by Burgomaster^ Max. 
FIREARMS. 

" As the laws of war forbid the civil population to take part in hostilities, 
and as all infringements of this rule may bring about reprisals, many of my 
fellow-citizens have expressed a wish to get rid of the firearms in their 
possession. 

" These weapons may be deposited at the poUce stations, where receipts 
will be given for them. 

" They will be placed under safe keeping in the central arsenal of Antwerp, 
and restored to their owners after the conclusion of hostilities. 

" Brussels, August 12th, 1914." 

{Reply to the German White Book of May loth, 191 5, p. 9.) 



Circular of the Minister of the Interior relating to the 
Uniform of Reservists of the Civic Guard. 

" I have the honour to inform you that a royal decree of August 8th, 1914, 
makes the wearing of the blue blouse obhgatory for reservists of the Civic 
Guard recently called up by the royal decree of August 5th last. 

" I beg further to call your attention to Article 2 of the decree in question, 
directing that the weapons borne by members of the above-mentioned units 
should be worn openly, i.e.. in such a manner as to be visible to the enemy. 
Hidden weapons, such as daggers, revolvers, etc., must not therefore be 
carried as the principal arms. 

" Have the goodness. Monsieur le Gouverneur, to communicate these 
regulations to the communes in your province without delay. 

" Paul Berryer, Minister of the Interior." 

[Ibidem, pp. 14-15.) 



TI 



PROCLAMATION BY THE BURGOMASTER OF DINANT 
TO HIS FELLOW-CITIZENS —AUGUST 3RD, 1914. 




Ghers Conciloyeos, 



A la dcmaiide il«» ruiitorilo supi*rieuri',j'fl I'lioiiiieuc <lo porlrr 
a voire coiiiiaisMince que Ton ne peiil, S'*)L'S AUCX'.X Plit- 
TK\TC, se reiidre daoi» \» ville dc \iiiiiu' uv/?c riiiteiitioii d'y 
.s(journei% loft u^cessitel^ d(r In. derciise de 'a position forlifiee 
pouvnnt niiH'uer raatorile iiiilitjiirr u f tpulser Ic^ bouchcn 
iiiuttl«^s. 

Jf crois devoir ajouler qii'acliieHenient n*y a nuciiii dang^ef'. 
cl que je ne vois pns hi rnison pour iaquell la population fuirait 
ses foyers. 

Jc recoininande le calnie le plus grand d^nsJes circdnstances 
qu«' nous traversons et j'inviKMdfiu, les habitants a continucr 
a y resider. 

Jc previcns enfin me<t nil(niiiislresqu''il lour tst rorinellemcnt 
intrrdit d'allcr s'approii'it -nor de vivresa i\'ainur; dann le cas 
oil ils \v IVraicnt, ils seraie(i< .-ir'ssibles de peines scvcres edictces 
par Tnutonle niilitaire^ 1 

\ rilotel de Ville dc DiiiAaf .0 o Aout i:»l4. 

le Oourgrtiesire, 

A. defoin: 



ln>(*r!i' 



V l*a\\:\]IM)ri III ire, 136. rue (;rande OiwiiX. — Tc?i>o It 



// will be noticed that it is the people of Dinant {who were so panic-stricken 
by the news of the invasion that they prepared to abandon their homes) 
whom the German White Book accuses of having organised an ambuscade on 
August 2^rd. 



12 



THE SO-CALLED " FRANCS-TIREURS " OF DINANT. 

POSTERS AFFIXED ON AUGUST 6th AT DINANT 
BY THE BURGOMASTER. 

L 
To the Inhabitants of the Town of Dinant. 

"Notice is hereby given to the inhabitants, under pain of 
immediate arrest, to bring to the poHce station all wireless 
telegraph apparatus for receipt or transmission of telegrams, and 
all firearms and ammunition in their possession. 

"Dinant, August 6th, 1914. "The Burgomaster, 

"A. Defoin." 
IL 

Notice to Inhabitants. 

"Formal notice is hereby given to the inhabitants that 
civilians must not take part in any attack or act of violence by 
arms or otherwise against the enemy troops. 

"Such attacks are forbidden by the law of nations, and would 
expose their authors, perhaps even the town itself, to the most 
grave consequences. 

" Dinant, August 6th, 1914. ■ " The Burgomaster, 

"A. Defoin." 

TRANSLATION. 

TOWN OF DINANT. 

"Dear Fellow-Citizens, 

"At the request of the higher authorities I have the honour to 
inform you that on no pretext whatever is anyone to go to the town 
of Namur with the intention of staying there. The necessities of 
the defence of a fortified position may oblige the military authorities 
to expel useless mouths. 

"I think it well to add that at present there is no danger, and 
I do not see any reason for the population to leave their homes. 

"I recommend the greatest calm in the circumstances in 
which we are now involved, and I invite all the inhabitants to 
continue to reside here. 

"I also warn the people under my jurisdiction that it is 
absolutely forbidden to obtain foodstuffs from Namur ; if they 
should do so they would be subject to severe penalties from the 
military authorities. 

"The Burgomaster, 
"Dinant Town Hall, August srd, 1914. "A. Defoin." 

13 



PROCLAMATION BY BURGOMASTER MAX TO THE INHABITANTS 
OF BRUSSELS ON THE EVE OF THE ENTRY OF THE ENEMY INTO 
THE CAPITAL.— AUGUST, 1914. 



VTLLE DE BRUXELLES 



C0NCIT0YEN8 

>l.-ilj!ri)i,la resisltiirc lKToii|iio ilc iios ti'uu|t<.*!i, Mvcoiiilces pnr Irs 
aniiiTs iilii<'«s, il osi « craindru que rciincmi n'envahissc ltruxilli-!>. 

Si (Mrcitlo evcniualili- se rt'alis«;,i'i;s|)crc pouvoir comntvr sur Ic calmc 
rl k- saiig-rrutd de la population. 

i)in: foil te gardv <lc loul afTolt^meni, du (ouio paniijue 

Li's Aiiioriios commuiiales lie ilvserteroiit pas leur poste Kllcs 
roMiiiiufroiii a reiiiplir Icurs foiiclions avee la fermcle que vous Oles 
i'ii.ilroil d'allendre d'cllcs cii dcs circonstaiiccs aussi graves. 

S»i a peine besoin de rappelcr a mes ronciloycns les devoii-s de lous 
einers Ic Hays. 

Le.N lots do la guerre inlcrdiscnt afcnneini de forcer la popiilniioii n 
iliMiiier des renscigiiemenl<i snr lAfmcf naiionalo et siirscs moxensde 
deleiise. Le<« habitants de Uriiwllcs doivent sa«oir qu iis sent en <lroit dc 
refuser de raircconnaiirc quoi que ce soil, a re siijct, ■ I'cnvaliisseur. 
Li' rifus Ictir est impose dam linitir^i de In Patrie 

Quaucuu de vous n'accepic de ser«r de guide a Icnncini 

Que cliacun se lienne eu |;ardc contre les cspions et le<i nnents 
rlrangers qui chcniieraient a niiieillir dcs rciisi'i;(nrinenls ou n pro- 
voquer dc* inaiiifeslatioiis dans uii sens i|iieleoiii|ue 

LViiiicnii nc pcut Irgilimeroenl porter attrinle ni n I'lionneur des 
families, ni • la vie des citoyens. ni a la pioiinelc priwe. ni nu\ convic- 
tions religieuses ou philosopliiqiii-s. in au lihre exorcire dc» rulles. 

(jiir tout abus roinniis par t'envahisscur iim- soil iiniiiciti.itcinent 
dinoiice. AUSSI LONGTEMPS QUE JE SERAI EN VIE 
ET EN LIBERTE. JE PROTEGERAI DE TOUTES MES 
FORCES LES DROITS £T LA DIGNITE DE MES 
CONCITOYENS 

Je prie les lialiilaois de facililer nia lAche en s'ab<Hen«ni de tout actc 
d'hostilite, de (out iisuKe d'nrnies, de toutc intervention dans les combats 
ou rencontres 

OONGITOTElfl. 

Quoi qu'il arrive, ^oulez la voix de voirr Bourgmestre et 
lui voire conflance.-ll ne la iraliira p%» 

Tvn LA BSLotovB UMBM IT xasmasAJiTmi 



ST AX) BRUSSEIL 



Adoiphe 




(iiiiiiiiik> iii-ii iii-i itii-ifii \ 

de »OllHiinliii {■■(;. IS i» Ih'I Ic 

Moi-Nldil p-lijKurX.'il /i<- 

bloi'thyl.ciil ilei hi\iilKiii;j li- i 



i'i'InIiiim! \.hi iiii/f li'<ie|>?ii. liiivfSlM^iii ilco 
icivi'ii (l:il ill- \i|iiii I lliiisff.l ovi'iiiiirKjteif 

\<)i>iil<i<-lt. I |> Ik •III III- k.illiilr I'll ill- I.0.I 

i;:i'ii rikenrii 



Dm men /mIi IkiciIi' xmu illt-ii il\\»/:<'ii MJiiik, viHir ^illi' (i^iiiMk 

l)e (^eiiict'iilfiiM'i'lirdcn sullen luiii |iii>.| nicl vcrliiU'ii /i| /iillrn limi 
anibl lilij\cii M'iMillfn iiicl .il de siiin(f\iio|i<:|M-id ilic t!i| iiiel rerlil kui Inn 
nioo^t MTWiiclilen in /iilki- •..'<'» i(-lili;.'coiiiNl;indi{!lii-dcn 

Ik .'It'll! Iiel <c'liici iiiin II}! iiiijnc nieilcbui'trers lo liciiMiii-rrti .uiii 

eeniedi IS jilirliii'ii icpcnox-i' lul l.:ind 

Do kiiJ!:>w<'IU'ii xoi'liii'dcn (l<>ii \ij:ind ilc boxnlkihi; ic iIwimlm-ii iiitirlilin- 
gen le pe\en ni)|H>iis jici \ali(in:ial Leper en ?i|'i'' *<"i<lrili;.'mu»iiiii|ililt'ii 

Deinwnners >.in Ui'ii>sol iiinolen welcn iI:h /ii Iki ktIii IhI.Ihii ii' 
Moipcrcn «.il lict iio\ ^ij, in ilii np/icht. den a.iiiN iller iiiede le ileeleii 
Deze welpoi'ing «<>i'dl litin In liet brl.ing Min.Jiel N.uleiliiiid ti|>i.'eli'L'il 

Dill (leeii ciikele onilvr L nnnneiiie den vii.iiid Inl pmN le ilH'iien 

Dm eeniediT op /ijnc linedo wezc Mim ile spmiinen en tie xreeinde 
api-nien die /oiiden iriiclilen inliclilingeii le lii'kuiiien ol lieloouinueii in 
weHkC /in onk le xerwekkon 

\ulpensde wel. ning de Mjnnd peon inliroiik iiiiiknn nnrb op <b* evr der 
liui»go/innrn. nneli 0|> liel lexeiii'der burgers, nuch up liel pn\;i.'il eiueiidnm. 
no<-li op di> po<l>dionslig(> ol w Ij.sgeeripe pediii'lilen. noch up lii'l xnie mine' 
(enen x.-in den ccrediensl 

Alle infcroiik door dennnnvalier pppleepd, weze mij tliidejljk liekenil 
geniaakl. ZOOLANG IK ZM. LEVEN EN IN VRIJHEID 
VERKEEREN. ZAL IK UIT AL MIJNE KRACHTEN DE 
RECHTEN en DE WAARDIGHEID MIJNER MEDE- 
fiURGERS VERDEDIGEN , 

Ik verzock de inwunei's niljne latik le vcrponwkkelijkcn nipl zieli le 
onllioudcn vnn alien \ijandelijkrn daad van alle '>x:i|K.'npebrmk, >iii> :ille 
innienging in poxechlen ol oniiiineiiiipen. 

KEDEBURGER8. 

Wat cr ook geboure, aiiMhonri de stem van I'wen Riirgemecster en 
Mioiift lien) \i\\ vcrlroiiwen. liij zaler nict loJiort aan koinea 
LETS BiLazs, Tsu ZM ovAnuncscux 



K. OIIYOT. ni. lM.rll«<>n 19 



AdoU 



"// appears from a trustworthy report made by a prisoner returned from 
Germany that, at Celle-Schloss {Hanover), M. Max, Burgomaster of Brussels, 
was placed in solitary confinement twice in three days for having answered back 
a non-commissioned officer who had addressed him in a German fashion, and for 
having complained to the attache of the Spanish Embassy of being ill-treated in 
the camp." 

{Communication from the "Bureau Documentaire Beige," November 2nd, 1916.) 



14 



HOW THE PEOPLE OF BRUSSELS REMAIN WORTHY OF THEIR 
IMPRISONED BURGOMASTER. 

GERMAN TESTIMONY. 

"The popular attitude at Brussels is iiiore unfavourable than ever, even for us Germans 
who have been there for a long time, and who ought to be absolutely hardened against 
this hostiUty. It is sometimes insupportable. I should advise no one to come here who 
is not obhged to do so. It would only be an expense, and give him very disagreeable 
impressions. I do not know what justification the people have for this attitude. They 
are convinced that the AlUes are making progress, and will soon make their entry into 
the capital with Albert at their head. Their conduct towards the * Boches ' is in conformity 
with this conviction." 

{The Brussels correspondent of the "Deutsche Wochemeitung fur die 
^iederldnde und Belgien," August 27th, 1916.) 

Notice by Lieutenant von Hurt, Governor-General of Brussels 
and Brabant.— November 18th, 1916. 

"On November 15th, considerable 'pohtical' demonstrations took pla^e in the 
churches of Sainte-Gudule and Saint- Jacques-sur-Coudenberg, and continued at the 
entrance to these two churches. On this occasion the Germans were insulted by the crowd. 

' ' For this reason, I order the following : — 

"From November 21st, until further orders, all public places of amusement, such 
as hotels, restaurants, caf6s and shops, must be closed at 8 p.m. This order appUes to 
the whole of Greater Brussels. 

"The onlv exceptions made will be for restaurants which obtain a permit from the 
Kommandantur to keep open later. 

"Only those persons possessing a written permit from the German authorities may 
be in the streets between 8 p.m. and 4 a.m." 

N.B. — November 1 5th is the Fete Day of King Albert. 



TRANSLATION. 

TOWN OF BRUSSELS. 

FELLOW-CITIZENS. 

, "In spite of the heroic resistance of our troops, seconded by the allied armies, it is 
to be feared that the enemy will occupy Brussels. 

"If this should occur, I hope I may count on the calm and coolness of the population. 

"Beware of any rash action and pamc. 

"The Communal Authorities will not desert their posts. They will continue to fulfil 
their duties with the firmness which you should expect from them in such grave 
circumstances. 

"I need hardly remind my fellow-citizens of their duty towaras their country. 

"The laws of war forbid the enemy to force the population to give information about 
the national army and the means of defence. The inhabitants of Brussels must know 
that they have the right to refuse to give any information whatever on this subject to 
the invader This refusal is imposed on them in the interest of their country. 

"Let none of you consent to be a guide to the enemy. 

"Let every one beware of spies and enemy agents who will endeavour to obtain 
information or to start demonstrations of any kind. 

"The enemy may not legally do any wrong either to the honour of famihes or to the 
life of the citizens, nor to private property, nor to religious or philosophical convictions, 
nor to the free exercise of any worship. 

"Let every abuse committed by the invader be immediately reported to me. AS 
LONG AS I LIVE AND AM AT LIBERTY, I WILL PROTECT THE RIGHTS AND 
DIGNITY OF MY FELLOW-CITIZENS WITH ALL MY MIGHT. 

"I beg the inhabitants to help in this task by refraining from any acts of hostility, 
from all use of arms, from all intervention in fights or encounters. 
"Fellow-Citizens, 

"Whatever happens, listen to the voice of your Mayor and keep up your confidence 
in him. He will not betray it. 

*'Long live Belgium, free and independent! 

"Long live Brussels ! 
"August. 1914. "Adolphe Max." 



PROCLAMATION BY FIELD-MARSHAL BARON VON DER GOLTZ, 

GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF OCCUPIED BELGIUM, TO THE BELGIAN 

CITIZENS.— SEPTEMBER 2ND, 1914. 



yialHi 



Seine Majrsiiil Avr DeutSK\tr kniscr linKvii 
ceralil. Illicit !:xrli nkkupi-:-iiii^ l>H;;isclipn 
C«MrlszMiii <;rii«r<il)$>itiveriieuri4i KeljtitM^zii 
•rneaiicii. Icb li:i!i<- <lfii Silz <les GeniralK*o- 
vemeiitriiis ii> ilrussel (Minisifriuiii fur 
WisNcn.<srli)i|i mill Kumile, rue di- U Li>i) ttit- 
fWelilnK.-ii 

Aof (iniiiil iveliciTi- Vnor%lriiiiiig Sririer 
taieslaec isl •Inn <•• iimilgoincriicur eka^ 
2lnlv<T\\aliMiii; Hii<;etci!rilerl (i\r i-^siiiiiiisle- 
riiiin. ni<- il<; LfiivMiii; an ilon-ii Sjiiizc SeiMc 
fawlloi.z Herr wm Saii:i sl«l.l 

Die ilouls<licii lleere •Iriiigfii sii'<rn;i<li lio 
Fraiikn icli «"r. Ili<r ioi belgisrln u Gebitile 
tiVitK uiiil Uiiti iiiig .iiilrrelil /.ii < rli:illi!iT, ist 
Au(gnbe ilcr Oi iM-ralgouvr riieiiienis. 

ie<t<^ reiudsfli;;e Hao«nuiig dcr Eiiiwuhiiflr- 
ichaft Kegfii .Viiplmerige dvr (lfii|s«-litn 
Heeres. Jrdo.r V. i siiirli. ilircn Vnkclir mil dtr 
Heimai zu sKx-n-ii, CiscnItalMi-n, Tcli-<'ra|)ii^, 
fern.«prechv«Tbiii!!iiitj{«;ii xu gerae;irdpn <><ler 
gar Ru uiilerbfcchfii, wird uniiiiclisidiilitli 
geaniidcl wcrdi-n. Aufnibr Oder \Vidersi»«d 
gegen dii; ileulocbe Verwalluiig habi-ii niidk- 
sicbUlute .^iederwcrrung wi gewaertigiii 

Die baric Notwendigkeil des Krifges bringi 
ea Mtit Kicit.-dti!^ Uci Bos^eafuig ri-iiul:ieligep 
Baadhiogen UnschukJige mil den Schuldig^n 
Mdeo. Umsoniehr is es Ptlicht alter verstaendjg 
lienkeoden Bewohoer Aelgiens, die unruhigeo 
Eleseirfe im Lande von jeder Ausschreituag 
gegea die osflenttidie OrdnuDg abzuhalten. 

KeJp bdgischer Buerger.der Wedferiig sfinetn 
Brwebe nachgehl.lial irgend eMt as von sehen der 
deiflschen Truppen und B^-hoerden zu bcluerclr- 
ten. Soweit irgend moegticb, soUen Handel und 
Wandet wicder aufgerK>innr>e», die induslriellen 
Belriebe wieder in Gang gebracbt und die Eio- 
hrii^iwig der Emte voUendel wertJen. 



Von Niemand wird verieugnting seiner valer- 
laepdiSL-iieji Gesinnung \crlangt, ^olilaber eine 
verniiPntUgf riie^niiki'il iin<l iinbedin{;ier Ge- 
borsam jjegen die Anordnungi-n des <;eneral- 
f «IV €f B c menis. Von Eurem Verhnllen. von deiii 
Venrauen uitd <l«n Jbsse der Uhiei-sliielHing, 
die 4m Volk, insbcsondt-re die im l^iide vcrhlir- 
benen Slaals- -und GemeinJeheantlMeti, dein 
Genenlgouvef Jiemenl entgegeii "brinireii. vtird 
es abtlBCfi^n ob die n«ue VerWaKting Eu<-I) u«d 
CureiB Unde zum Segen §ei«icht: 



tfrw-ssel, den i. Sei)le'm1>er 1914. 
Der Ktdm-lkkt CenenJ-Gmivemeur in Betyitti 

IHiherp \m der GOLTZ. 



Plvdialioii 



Sa Majesie \'VM\\^ew <}Ailoiiiagnr, nprcs 
focfuitnliiiii (Ii- la pliii ffwit'tf jiaiilc duierriloire 
beige, a daigne ni- iiiHiMiier Gi>ii\rmeur 
General en Kelgiqut^ J'ai eiabli le sit-ge du 
Gouvernemenl Geiirwl a Kriixilies (Minislere 
des Science ec des Arts, inie di- la Loij.' 

Par ordrede Sa Ikjeslp une administration 
civile ,1 ('{(• irislallee ■aiipivs dn (iouverncment 
General (Mintilere deb Ginnc. me (le lyouvain'. 
Son Excellence Monsiair xonSandl a cle appeic 
aux tonelions de cliel de celle aiiiuinislraUon 

Les arrays: allenianjes s avaiicent victorieuse- 
meot en Franc-e. Ma lathe sera de coaserver la 
iran^iiliie et fordr^; y\.\h\\- i-n terriloire lielge 

Tout arte hostile ies habiianis conire les 
miOtaires iillcmands, kmle lenlaiivede iroiibler 
leurs commimicaiions avec I' Mleinjigne, de 
g^nerou dccoiipei' le< services des ci eniiiis de 
fer, du lel^raplu; el (h l-lephone s<Tonl punis 
tres severemenl. Toue rt^islance mi revolle 
contfe I'admiuistraiioii atleinaride sera reprimee 
sans pardon. 

Cest la dure Becessl* de la guerre que les 
punitions daeles hoslil'is Irapp^nl, en dehors des 
coapables, aussi des innocents. Le devoir s'impose 
d'autant plus a lous les <cilo>ens raisonnables 
d'exercer une pressimi Wrl«5 ciemcrils (urbulenla 
en vue de les retenii* de' toole action dirigee 
contre I'oixfre pobiic. 

Les ciloyons beiges desirant vaquer paisible- 
menl a leurs occupations n'oni rien a cralndre de 
la part des troupes ou Jes autorites allemandes. 
Autant que laire se poorra, le commerce devra 
eire repris, les usines devroiil recommencer 
a travailier. les nmissons *ire ("entrees. 



Citoyens Beiges, 



Je ne .demando a p«'rsonn("> de renter ses 
sentiments patrioliiiues..iiiais jailtiids dc vmis 
to«s une souiiiission rpisonuidilc el iiiie dImHst- 
saiK* »l>solii<' vis-a-vis d»>s oidics du tlouM'iiie- 
inenl General. Je wmi linilc a lui iiionlirr dr ki 
I'onfianciM-i a lui pivla viiiieinmoiiis.J 'a(ln<iM' 
rette iiivitalMin sp<vi.al<«iiM'iil aux loiiclltiiiiMiie-i 
del'Elaf elde?*comnMiin's<|iiisoiil icsli-s a Icimn 
p^tes. Plus voiis doniK'ii'X suite a (tI appel, |ilti» 
voiisservirez votiv pairie 



Kaii a Biux4'lles le 4 seplendtce I "Hi 
1^ Cotnyi'xfXi' di'iirnil, 

Baitm voiv i)r:it (•<M/I7. 



Prodaiiialie. 



Zijne .Majesteil de Kei/er van Duitschlaod n < 
bezelting van hci itroDisie gedeelte van Ik** 
belgisch territoi ium, lie< II mij tot Generaal C«»i- 
vemeiir in Belgie bemieind. Ik heb den zrt** 
van betGeneraal-(fOiivernenienlin Brussel (Minis-' 
terie van Schooiie Kunslen, VVetslraat) opgc- 
slagea 

Dp bevel van Zijne Majesleit. Is er eene bitr- 
gerlijkc iidmlnislratle bij het Generaal-Coiner- 
neinenl ingerichl. Zijne Excellentiede Jleer von 
Sandt is bcnoemd lot hould ile/.cr admin:-' aiie 
(zetel .Xinisieiie vanOorlog, Leuvensche vmjij. 

De diiiisclie iroepen drifl<!en overjvinnem! Ir 
Frankiijk binnen. .Mijnc tauk z:il zijn de kaliiilc 
en openbare oi de op belgisch gebied oprectl li- 
houden. 

AUe vljandelijke handeling der inwon^ 
legeii aan;;eliorlgen van bet duilsche leger^alle 
verzoek den verkeei inel Dnilschland te storcn, 
deii dienst der ijzeren wegen, de.s telegraaCs en 
des leleUwns te belemmeren ol le breken, ml 
zeer sircng (restraft vorden iedere wederslawl 
ol re volte tegen deduiLsche admiaistratie yjrt 
zoiider genade gestralt worden. 

Het IS de barde noodzakelijkhdd van den 
oorlog. dat de stralfcn van vijandefijke liande-' 

4iii)i;uo. btiilen 4e i^liuUii^^n »oL da ottBiduil*- 

digea trcHen. Des te meer is hel de pltehl vaii" 
•He verstandige burgers op de onrustige 
eleroenten eenen dnik uil le oelenenom deze vjb 
Iedere handeling tegen de openbare orde te 
weerhouden. 

De belgische burgers, die weiischen in ni«t 
hare nijverbeid na te gaaii, iiebben niets e 
vreezen van wcge de troepen ol de dui>'i<' 
anioriteilen. Zooveel Kel mogelijk zal zijn, iiio«'l 
de hanJel hernonien. de labrieken in 'I *erk 
bersleld, deoogst binnengebrachl wordeii 

Belgische burgers, 

Ik \niag aai'i niemand /ijne patrioliS4lie 
gevoeleiisir unizegjteu.niaar ik \ei wachl vrn t^, 
alien eene .eislamlis-'e imilerwerplng eii eein; 
Kollciliiie (j.clu>jrwiiil.ii'iil tegenover de bcvelcn 
\air M l.eneraal-l.'oiiurnciii.iil Ik vei^zoek •' 
lieiii \erlri>ii«eri le Mlieiikeii eii hem Uwe hulp 
le wrlcHiiieii. Ik nclil dil xeizoek liooldzakelijk 
aairalle amblenaaieu >an den Slaal en van d« 
jieiiieenleli. die <ip linniie plaals geblexen zijir, 
llm-iiieei I de'/.eii vxi'iiMb \oldnen /.idl. des 
le iiieer /nil I u>v xaderlaiid iiiillii.' /.ijil. 

(.eseMii li Hiii-m'I <Icm i" iv^'pteilllHT V. If. 



FcldmarAcbsl. 






//(• deiirrtmi-li 



l^'ii'on vo!v DHR (lOLTZ. 

TetdmaarachalL 



It will be noticed that this proclamation announces, in the event of collective 
punishment, that the innocent will suffer with the guilty. This procedure is 
justified, according to the text, by the "dire necessity of war." 

i6 



TRANSLATION. 

PROCLAMATION. 

"H.M. the Emperor of Germany, after the occupation of the greater part 
of Belgian territory, has deigned to nominate me'Governor-General in Belgium. 
I have established the seat of Government at Brussels {Ministire des Sciences 
et des Arts, Rue de la Loi). 

"By order of His Majesty, a civil administration has been estabhshed 
beside the General Government {Ministere de la Guerre, rue de Louvain). His 
Excellency M. von Sandt has been appointed head of this administration. 

"The German armies are advancing victoriously in France. My task 
will be to preserve quiet and public order in Belgian terrifbry. 

"Any hostile acts against the German troops, any attempt to interfere 
with their communications with Germany, to disturb or to cut the railway 
lines or the telegraph and telephone wires, will be severely punished. All 
resistance or revolt against the German administration will be repressed 
unmercifully. 

"It is the dire i^ecessity of war that these punishments will strike the 
innocent as well as the guilty. It is therefore even more the duty of all reason- 
able citizens to repress the more turbulent elements in order to restrain them 
from any acts contrary to public order. 

"Belgian citizens desiring to keep peacefully to their occupations have 
nothing to fear from either the German troops or the authorities. As much as 
possible, commerce must be taken up again, factories must resume work, 
the harvest must be gathered. 

"BELGIAN CITIZENS, 

"I do not ask anyone to renounce his patriotic feelings, but I expect from 
all a reasonable subrciission and an absolute obedience to the orders of the 
General Government. I invite you to give your confidence to it and your 
help. I address this invitation specially to the officials of the State and the 
communes who have remained at their posts. The more you collaborate with 
us the better you serve your country. 
"Given at Brussels, September 2nd, 1914. 

"The Governor-General, 

"Baron von der Goltz, 

"Field-Marshal." 



THE PROMISE AND ITS EXECUTION. 
The Promise : 

"Business will bs resumed, the factories will be reopened. ... I ask 
nobody to renounce his feelings of patriotism." 

The Execution. 

I. PATRIOTISM " RESPECTED." 

Note of the Belgian Government to the Neutral Powers on the forced labour 
and deportation ^ imposed upon the Belgian population by the German 
authorities. 

"A decree from German General Headquarters, dated October 3rd, 
imposes forced labour upon all Belgians capable of work who, in consequence 
of lack of employment or other causes, have become dependent upon outside 
assistance. Individuals to whom this order applies can be forced to work 

17 



away from their place of residence — in other words, be deported to Germany in 
a condition of semi-slavery. 

"The great difl&culty of communication with the occupied portion of 
Belgium has prevented the Belgian Government from receiving all the 
information which they were anxious to obtain as to the manner in which 
the decree of October 3rd is being carried out. 

"They learn, however, from a rehable source that the wholesale deporta- 
tion of the able-bodied population is proceeding. Rich and poor, if unoccupied, 
or without work, are taken without mercy. On October 24th last more than 
15,000 men had already been removed from Flanders alone. Trains entirely 
filled with these unfortunate people were seen proceeding to Germany. Others 
were sent to the invaded departments of France. The men were crowded into 
open trucks, exposed to all weathers, under the most miserable conditions. 
Their spirit, in spite of cold and privation, was in no way daunted, and they 
sang patriotic songs while enduring this new form of oppression. 

"Raids took place at Courtrai, Alost, Termonde, Bruges, Ghent, Mons, 
and in numerous rural and industrial communes. The men were collected 
and examined as if they were cattle ; the able-bodied were dispatched to 
unknown destinations. 

"At Bruges, the burgomaster, an old man of 80 years of age, who since 
the beginning of the occupation had given an example of noble patriotism, 
was deprived of his office for refusing to assist the German military authorities 
in their horrible task ; the town was condemned to a fine of 100,000 marks 
for every day's delay in the enrolment of victims. 

"Up to October 24th, this deportation had taken place principality .^ 
the miUtary zone (i.e.. East and West Flanders). In the rest of the country, 
the civil authorities had no doubt hesitated to employ measures which violate 
not only the spirit and the text of The Hague Convention, but also the 
solemn promise made to the population in a proclamation of July 25th, 1915, 
that no forced labour would be exacted from them which did violence to their 
sentiments of patriotism ; £§^3 ^ 

"The Belgian Government denounce to all civilised nations these 
infamous proceedings, which trample upon all the laws of humanity as well 
as upon those provisions of the conventional rules of war relating to the 
power of the occupant. 

"They protest with the utmost energy against the application of a 
system which the empty explanations of the enemy will not save from the 
name and the stigma of slave-trade, an infamy which completes the dishonour 
of the German occupation, in spite of its pretended anxiety to protect the 
legitimate rights of the population of Flanders 1" 

2. "REVIVAL OF INDUSTRY." 

Reply of the Deputies for Mons to Governor-General von Bissing on the subject 

of the deportations. 

"Mons, November 27th, 1916. 

"At Quaregnon, of 1,000 workmen called up to the register, 304 have 
been deported. Among the latter are 227 who are not unemployed (including 
4 farmers, 5 master bakers, 6 bakers, i master butcher, i brewery engineer, 
1 manager of a large brewery, i business man of standing, the son of a director 
of an ironworks, i master printer). 

"It is worth mentioning that the number of men called up for registration 
is small in proportion to the total number of the population, but one ought 
not to lose sight of the fact that we are Hving in the centre of the colHery 
region and that all the miners have been exempted. 

"This remark appHes to all the other communes. 

"At Dour, of 137 deportees, there are 117 employed men, among them 
9 farmers, 4 students, and numbers of masters of small shops working at home. 

"At Wammes, of 186 deportees, 130 employed. 

"At Frameries, of 200 deportees, 157 employed. 

"At Hornu, of 140 deportees, 78 employed. 

"At P&turages, of 139 deportees, 134 employed. 

"At Ghhn, of 155 deportees, 109 employed. 

18 



"At Havr6, the burgomaster informed the recruiting officers that all 
the men called up for registration were employed (he had hims-elf made 
inquiry, and asked to be allowed to produce his evidence). His remarks 
were brushed aside, and of 450 men called up for registration, 45 were 
deported, all employed. 

"Similar proportions are shown by all the communes. Is this a mere 
coincidence ? No ; in most cases the selection of the workmen who have 
employment in Belgium has been dehberate. The recruiting agents show a 
marked preference for the most skilled workmen in certain industries — 
foremen, mechanics and labourers from rolUng-mills, glass-workers, shoe- 
makers, fitters, electrical engineers, farmers. 

"Thus, at the iron works and rolhng mills of Baume, at Haine-Saint- 
Pierre, of 400 workmen registered 52 have been deported. 

"At the Gilson factories at La Croyere, 50 workmen, out of 225 called 
up for registration, have been deported. 

"At the 'Soci6te La Brugeoise et Ni9aise et Delcuve,' 56 07it of 369. 

"At the 'Soci6t6 Anonjrme des Laminoirs' at La Louvifere, 51 out of 73. 

"At the 'Boulonnerie et Fonderies de la Louvi^re ' factories. 25 out of 131. 

"At the Bouvy factory at La Croyfere, 25 out of 145. 

"At the Central Building Co., at Haine- Saint-Pierre, 37 workmen and 
employees still at work have been deported — say, 10 per cent, of the employed 
workmen. 

"At the Spiltoir, Heppez, and Heck workshops at Haine-Saint-Paul, 
14 men have been deported, representing 70 per cent, of the working 'personnel* 
required to register and 40 per cent, of the total number of workmen. 

"At the blast furnaces and foundries at La Louviere the deportation 
among the employees reached 70 per cent., with the result that the factory 
is now at a standstill, 

"At the Boel factories at La Louviere, 249 men have been carried off, 
among them a chef de bureau, 10 clerks, 21 foremen and 217 workmen. 

"All the clerks and workmen of those factories who have been deported 
were still at work at the time of the registration. 

"At the glass factory of Jemappes — the only plant of the kind in our 
district — the appHcation of the system has produced a striking result. This 
factory was again set running on December 4th, 1915 ; it was going uninter- 
ruptedly and with increasing pressure up to September ist, 1916. It 
was idle till November loth, owing to the repair of certain furnaces with a 
view to increasing its output. More than half of its trained men have been 
taken away. In order to give the precise figures, we quote the numbers : — 
" 40 per cent, of the souffleurs (glass blowers), 
" 60 per cent, of the first apprentices, 
" 30 per cent, of the second apprentices, 
" 40 per cent, of the repasseurs (grinders), 
" 33 per cent, of the etendeurs (expanders), 
"100 per cent, of the electrical engineers, 
" 100 per cent, of the fitters, etc. 

"What a dislocation of this industry ! 

"What we have just said about the Jemappes glass factory apphes to 
most of the industries of which we have spoken." 

• • * • 

"You make an effort to reassure our patriotism. Excellency, by teUing 
us that deported Belgians are not to take part in work which has a miUtary 
object. But does not every one take part in work with a mihtary object if he 
ministers in any way to the enterprises of a belHgerent nation ? The farmer 
who provides fats for the army, the tailor who makes clothes, the currier, 
the cobbler, the woodman, the navvy — do they not co-operate in war work ? 
Whoever sets foot in Germany to work becomes an auxiUary of the German 
Army, whatever work he may do." 



19 



NOTICE BY BARON VON LUTTWITZ, URGING THE PEOPLE 

OF BRUSSELS TO REMOVE THE BELGIAN FLAG. 

SEPTEMBER i6th, 1914. 




Inn ollcfi \ 4*rs(fnHliiis ihn'Hf i^ciM'n Inti'- 
^•^'s. hid ifjc (k'^olkrniiig IlriisN'h ^^m 
ii'iN'k<'ff (\vv (I^iiIm'Im'ii Truitimi nli l>is 
/.I \m (ill»(iii<>iii(>M IIiiIn' iiiki Oniming 
^i\Ur\. Ill ItriN'tniclil tlc^'ii li.'itNr idi 
ti4'f kciiM'i'lci *^-linnr griaii.iriii ilic voi) 
II UU'f mmcM'iHh'ii, ^U' (linrli/.H'JiciHlni 
lIlM'lioii tl'i(|i|M'ii nh I'ni^ok.-ilioii mi- 
kmIciic lJ<'l1)iv5<;img firQwM'lH inU M- 
i'\ivu FjiIiim'ii m yorh'H'U'U. (iPmU'tAnr 
I M \vfU\iu\mh thm iiiinpi'i' Tnipncii 
ilitrcli 7M •M^ilHtltKligcin KiiiKt'cilcii Im*- 
igcii ^mWtt kOtinUii, (ti'Miclio icli iiiiii- 
'iir (iir lk>!<ilM'i' del' ciii/^'liicii IIIUim4', 
• iMlukix ii I niiiii'ii riiiziizielicii. . 
K^ lir^l (Iciii (iciitM-lihi Miltlflf-rKHi^ct'- 
liKMit (liilH'i t4M'ii, «llc (idnlilc* iiikI ilic 
[ihlrilcr KlinMilin('i'«M'linll ^cHi'izrii/.u 
iilni. hir Mtiiwnnlitiicliiil MiiiMicn /xM'rk, 
> lini'goi- M>i- Kchtiik'ti zu ItcNvaiimi. 

Hi'nwiiihai in s>|»U'hilM>i' liM4 



Vrothorr von Lttttwiti, 



AVIS 



Li |M>|Hikilioii (((' llniM'Ik's. coiiiiirc- 
itaiil JMoii s<N |ii'4»|)i'('s iiiU'n'Is. iMdM'r\r 
<'ii};nirnil (ksTrnlnr liis ii'oii|Ns allr- 
niaii<l(>s jiMfuVi |>n-x'ul fonlir rl l«> 
I'nimc. Voiir rrlh* i';iis<Hi j«' it;ii |»;is 
nmrtv pris ilcs .iimniu'cv \mn' drlnnln' 
Ir p:MOLS('iii('iil <!«• .ilr:i|H*.-iii\ Im-Ij^is. 
roiisHlon'' roiiiiiM' |>n>\<M';ilioii jwr k*s 
li'oii|M>sall4'in;iii(i('s 4|iii >;4>itf dc s«'J4nii' 011 
4l4' p.iss}i|?4' ;i Hni\4'lk'>. (;*4>l 'piMS'isi'iiH'nl 

|NMir 4'Mi4'l' 4|II4* II4>S ir4MI|»4'> 114' sl)i<>||| 

.•iiU4'ii4Vs ;i agir 4l4' k-iir |>r4(|»r4'.mr, 4fi4' 
J4'iigai;4' iiKiiiil4*iiaiil k's j)r4mH4'lair4S 4l4*s 
iiiai>4Mis 4l«' lain' iMnlnT 14^ 4lia|M'au\ 

lK'lg4'S. 

\a' (;4»ui4riMniM'iil iiiljilajn' iia aiini- 

Il4'lll4'lll i'illl4'll1i4rtl 4I4' ll*4M>S4'l' par 4*OU4' 

iii4'Mir4' k's M'liliiuciiK 4M la 4li;;iHr4' 414^ 
lialiilaiils. Ha k' s4Mif lail 4l4' piTwn4T 

Icr* ('ilin4*lls4l4> |4MII 4k>llllliag4'. 

Ilni\4*ik>s, k' l(»s('|)(4'iiil»r4''ltHi. 



Baron von Liitiwitz, 



(iitiHnI rl (iiMii-i ifiur 



BERICHT 



llaai- 4'i.nni'lM'|;iiiv; \\4'l lM'jj:nj|M'H4l.lMrll 
4k' I;niss4'lxlj4' lM'\4»lkiii,:;4i\4'r 'I ali^cirMrii 
Nan licl inlr4'4k>ii 4kr I)iiils4li4' Ii'4n>|n'II .nl 
l<»l Ii4'(k'n l«M' 4k' 4>r4k' 4'n 4k' kaliiKc Ims 
waai'd. Oiii 4li4' r4'4k'if,'li4'l» ik ii4ig gcoijc 
iiiaali-4',i,'»'kii s,'4'n4»iii4*ii oiii 4k' In>\ ki^^iii}; 
iiu'l 4k' Ik'l};i>4li4' 4lri4'kk«»ii' {v >4'ii)k><k>ii, 
lM'\lai;i;inK(li4'4kMM' 4k' hi4'r aaii\V4'y.ig4' 4>l 

(k* >4M»ll»ijll'4'kk4'll4k' (|'4M'(M'II als 4,'4'IM' llJl- 

4ia^iii^ \>()i-<lf .-laii/k'ii. Jiiisi 4>iii |4> iN'k'tU'ii 
(lal 4Hi/,4' li'(>4>|M'n lii('i'4k>4»i' |4>I /.4>llslaii4lig 
4»|M»'4'4k'n /oiKk'ii 4>>4'i-i;aaii. \4'i7.4M'k^ ik 
(han> 4k' 4'i.i;4'iiaais 4k'i- iiiii/4'ii 4k' |{4'l^ischc 
\la;; \\4';; (4' ii4'iii4'ii. 

Ik'l li,i,'l,},'4'4'ns/ins jit ik' lM'4kM'lini,' van 
ii4'i lMiils4-liiiiilil.iji' (MMiM'riiniu'iii do iri- 

\\4t|ll'l'N ill lllinil4>!;4'>4M>k'IIS fl4H'll ill lllllllK' 

\>aanlii,'lM'id (4' ki'4'iik4'ii. |>4' iiiaalr4'i,'4'l 
h4'4'(l (llkcl llll 4k»4'l 4k' Ihii'i^i'is U»^v\\ 
S«lia4l4' !(' lK'l|(M'4k'll. 

IJnissi'l. ik'ii Hi s4'pl('iidM'i' 101 i. 



Vrijheer von Luttwitz. 



On September 2nd, Baron von der Goltz had said 
renounce his patriotic feelings." 



" I do not ask anyone to 



20 



THE "INTERPRETATION" PUT BY A GERMAN ON A 

PROMISE GIVEN BY ANOTHER GERMAN, AND THE 

BELGIAN COMMENT. 

To the request made by Baron von Liittwitz, in flagrant 
contradiction to von der Goltz's pledge, Burgomaster Max replied 
with the following proclamation : — 

CITY OF BRUSSELS. 

"Beloved Fellow-Citizens, 

"A notice posted to-day informs us that the Belgian flag which 
flies from the front of our houses is looked upon as a 'provocation' 
by the German troops. 

"Field-Marshal von der Goltz said, however, in his proclamation 
of September 2nd, that 'nobod}^ would be required to abjure his 
patriotic feelings/ Thus w^e could not foresee that the expression 
of these feelings would be regarded as an offence. 

"The proclamation which informs us that it is so is, I acknow- 
ledge, drawn up in moderate terms and with a regard for our 
susceptibilities. 

"It will none the less be deeply wounding to the sensitive and 
proud population of Brussels. 

" I ask the population of this town to give a fresh example of 
the self-restraint and greatness of soul which it has already so often 
exhibited during these sad days. 

"Let us provisionally accept the sacrifice which is imposed 
upon us ; let us withdraw our flags in order to prevent any friction, 
and patiently await the hour of redress. 

"The Burgomaster, 

"Brussels, September i6th, 1914." "Adolphe Max/' 



TRANSLATION. 

NOTICE. 

"The population of Brussels have up till now, understanding 
their own interests, maintained their calm since the entry of the 
German arm}^ For this reason, I have not as yet taken any measures 
to forbid the display of Belgian flags, which is considered as a provoca- 
tion by the troops remaining in Brussels. It is precisely in order to 
avoid any action taken by our troops on their own initiative that 
I now urge the householders to withdraw their flags. • 

"The German Government has no intention of hurting the 
feelings or the dignity of the inhabitants by this measure. Their 
only object is to preserve the citizens from all damage. 

"Brussels, September 16th, 1914. 

"Baron von Luttwitz, 

"Major-General and Governor.** 

21 



NOTICE BY LIEUTENANT-GENERAL HURT, GOVERNOR OF 

BRUSSELS AND BRABANT, FORBIDDING ALL DEMONSTRATIONS 

ON THE OCCASION OF THE NATIONAL BELGIAN FETE. 

JULY I2TH, 1918 




Jfede Feier aui Aniass des am 31. 7. 16 
ttlfindcBdea, darch belgisches Gesetz vom 
' 5. 1890 zHin Kcsetiiichea Feie.rtag 
klartea, belgischeo j^atioaalfeiertajp wird 
rboten. 

Ich wane vor j^lichen DeiboattraUoaeii, 
[>zu nater aaderem rechaea : 
^ffentliche VenaioinlaaKeB, Umzfige, Aa- 
mmlaagea des PubKLums, Aasprachea, 
ihalfeierB, das Niederlegea voa Blaniea aa 
eakmSler* asw., sowie das Flaggea ofleat- 
her Oder privater Gebaade, 
s Scklietsen der Yerkaafsladea oder Cafes 
w. ZM uai^wdhaliebea Stuadea. 
Zuwiderhaadlaagea werdea mit Freiheils- 
■afen bis zu 4 HoDatea uad mit Geldstrafea 
) zu 30000. — Hark oder mit eiaer diesor 
rafea geahadet; strafbar macht sieb aich? 
ir der Titer, soadera aach der Aastifter 
id Gehfilfe. 

Ich weise aasserdem darauF bia, data der 
ischlaf; oder die Verbreituag aicht zeasa- 
;rter Schriftea, jowie das heraasfordcrade 
■agea voa Abzeicbea verbotea siad uad daM 
de Zuwiderbaadlaag strafbar ist. 

Bribsd, dea 13. JaU 1016. o»«- •" -n 



HURT, 




AUe feestelijkhedea aaar aaaleidiag van den 
aatioBalea feestdag la Belgie op 21 Juli 1010, 
die tot weltelijkea feestdag verklaard werd 
bij de Belgische wet raa 37 Mei 1890, zija 
verbodea 

Ik waarschuw voor betoogiagea van elkea 
aard. Als zoodaaig zija o. a. te beschouwea : 

openbare vergaderiagea, stoetea, aamea- 
scboliagea vaa bet pabliek, toesprakea, feeste- 
lijkbeden in de schoien. bet aeerleggen van 
bloemea aaa den voet vaa gedeakteekena, eaz., 
alsook bet bevlaggea van openbare gebouwea 
of privaathuizea, 

bet sluitea op aiet gebruikelijke area vaa 
winkels en ma|p»zijaea of koflBehuizea, enz. 

Orertrediagea wordea gestraft met lea 
boogste 6 maaad gevangeais en met ten 
boogste 30.000 mark boete, of met een dezer 
straflen; aiet enkel de dader, docb 00k de 
aaasticbterea de belper makea zicb strafbaar. 

Ik wijs er boveadiea op, dat bet aaaplakkea 
of bet verspreidea vaa aiet-geoeasareerde 
geschriftea, alsook bet dragea op aitdageade 
vryze vaa keateekeas verbodea is ea dat rike 
OTerfarcder zich strafbaar maakt. 

dea 13* JaH 1910. 



■ CrMieemawr v&n BHUmI mnd BrebmiU 
HURT 
GcBeraDeataaat. 



Avis 



n est defeadu de celebrer d'aae roaniere 
qaplcoaqae la f ^te nationale beige du 31 juil- 
let 1916, d6claree jour ferie legal par la loi 
beige du 37 mai 1890 

Je previeas la population qu'elle devra 
s'absteair de toutes demoastratioas. telles que -. 

rennioas publiqwes, corteges, rassenible- 
meats, baraaguea el discours, f^Ies scolaires, 
depositioa de fleurs devaat certains monu- 
ments, etc., pavoisemeat d'edifices publics ou< 
prives, 

fermeture dea magasias, cafes, etc. a dea 
heures exceptiaaaelles. 

Lea infractions seroat punies Soit d'une 
peine d'enprisonnement de 6 mois au plus ei 
d'une aroeade pouvaat atteindre 30000 marcs, 
soit d'uae de oes deux peines a rexchisioB de 
I'autre; seroat passibles de oes peines aoa 
sealemeat ies' auteurs des lafractioas mais 
aussi Ies fauteurs et Ies complices 

J'altire, ea outre, Talteatioa du public sur 
ce qu'il est defeadu d'afficher et de repaadre 
des ^rits BOB censures ou de porter des 
iarigaes d'uae maai^re provocatrice. 

BnueOes, le 13 juillet 1916. 

B»r G m w otr n mr ran Bru*»el und 
HIJRT, 



Compare this with the promise of Buron von der Goltz 
to renounce his patriotic sentiments." 



I do not ask anyone 



22 



A TOPICAL SERMON BY CARDINAL MERCIER. 

On' July 2ist, 1916, a solemn service was celebrated in the 
Cathedral of Saint-Gudule, at Brussels, for the lepose of the souls 
of Belgian soldiers who died for their country. On this occasion 
Cardinal Mercier mounted the pulpit and preached a sermon from 
which we give some extracts. 

"Jerusalem was made an habitation of strangers: her 
festival days were turned into mourning." 

First Book of Maccabees, chap. 1. verses 40, 41. 

"If, in spite of its horrors, war — ^I mean a just war — has so much austere 
beauty, it is because war brings out the disinterested enthusiasm of a whole 
people, which gives, or is prepared to give, its most precious possession, even 
life itself, for the defence and the vindication of things which cannot be 
weighed, nor calculated, nor monopolised : Justice, Honour, Peace, 
Liberty ! . . . 

"... One of the clergy of the capital has been condemned to twelve 
years' penal servitude. I was allowed to go into his cell to embrace and to 
bless him. 'I have three brothers at the front,' he said, 'and I think I am 
here chiefly because I helped the youngest — he is only seventeen — to rejoin 
the elder ones ; one of my sisters is in a neighbouring cell, but thank God, 
my mother is not left alone ; indeed, she has sent us a message to say that 
she is not in tears.' 

"Do not our mothers remind us of the mother of the Maccabees ? . . . 

"It needs courage to throw oneself forward, but it needs no less to hold 
oneself back. There are times when it is more noble to suffer in silence than 
to act. And what of these two years of calm submission by the Belgian 
people before the inevitable ; this unshakable tenacity, which moved a 
humble woman, before whom the possibiUties of an approaching conclusion 
of peace were being discussed, to say : 'Oh, you must not be in a hurry on 
our account ; we can go on waiting.' What a fine example this is for the 
generations to come !" 



TRANSLATION. 

NOTICE. 

"All festivities on the occasion of the NATIONAL BELGIAN FETE 
DAY, on July 21st, 1916, declared a public hohday by the Belgian law of 
May 27th, 1890, are forbidden. 

"I warn the population to abstain from any demonstrations such as : — 

"Public meetings, processions, assembhes, harangues and speeches, school 
feasts, laying of flowers on certain monuments, display of flags on private or 
pubUc monuments. 

"Shutting of shops, cafes, etc., at unusual hours. 

"Any breach of this rule will be punished with 6 months' imprisonment 
and a fine not exceeding 20,000 marks, or by either of these punishments. 
Not only the perpetrators of the deeds, but also the instigators and the accom- 
plices will be punished. 

"I also draw the attention of the public to the fact that it is forbidden 
to post up or to circulate any uncensored matter, or to wear badges in a 
provocative way. 

"Brussels, July 12th. 1916. 

' ' The Governor of Brussels and Brabant, 

"Hurt, 
' ' Lieutenant-General. ' ' 

23 



II. 

THE ATROCITIES AT ANDENNE 



A COLLECTION OF POSTERS 
ILLUSTRATING THE REIGN OF TERROR 



PROCLAMATION BY GENERAL VON BULOVV. ANNOUNCING THE 

SACK OF ANDENNE TO THE INHABITANTS OF LifiGE. 

AUGUST 22ND, 1914. 



Iimiiii-iiiioiiinilo 



LE 22 AOUT 1914 



IIb.IrD.N. 150. 




DE LA 




Les habitants de la ville dAndenne, apr6s 
avoir proteste de leurs intentions pacifiques. 
ont fait une surprise traitre sur nos troupes. 
Cest avec mon consentement que le G6n6ral 
en chef ?. fait brtiler toute la locality et que 
cent personnes environ ont 6t6 fusillees. 

Je porte ce fait ^ la connaissance de la Ville 
de Li6ge pour que les Li6geoisse repr^sentent 
le sort dont ils sont menaces, sils prenaient 
pareille attitude. 

Ensuite. il a 6t6 trouv6 dans un magasin 
darmes h Huy des projectiles * dum-dum » dans 
le genre du specimen joint k la pr6sente lettre 
Au cas que cela arrivAt. on demandera rigou 
reusement compte chaque fois des personnes 
en question 

Le General-Commandant en chef 
(s) von BULOW 



Imp La Mkum 



The figures quoted by the German General are much lo.ver than the actual 
number of dead. 

26 



Indictment by the Bishop of Namur. 

"If one had to characterise in a few words the facts of Andenne — to the 
exclusion of what happened at Seilles, which is not in our diocese — we should 
say that there were two successive scenes independent of one another. The 
first, that of Thursday, was a foolish panic amongst the German troops ; the 
second, that of Friday, an orgy of blood. 

"On Thursday, August 20th, about 6.15 in the evening, shots were hejird. 
Were they, as Goetze certifies, directed against an aeroplane ? Were they 
accidental or intentional ? Probably we shall never be able to determine. 
But the main point, which can no longer be called in question, is that the 
shots were not fired from Andenne at all, but from the heights of Seilles, and 
that they were fired not by civilians, but by German troops. 

"When these shots were fired, the first and most obvious duty of the 
authorities was to inquire from what point the fire proceeded. They should 
have urged their men to keep quiet, and instituted an inquiry. 

"They would immediately have ascertained that there was no Belgian 
or French soldier in the vicinity, that no civilian had the least grudge against 
the troops, and they must then have found out that it was their own men who 
had fired." 
{Protest of Mgr. Heylen against the German White Book, October Slst, 1915.) 

Statistics of the Sack of Andenne. 

' ' The statistics of the losses at Andenne give the following total : — Three 
hundred were massacred in Andenne and Seilles, and about two hundred houses 
were burnt in the two locahties. A great number of inhabitants have 
disappeared. Almost every house has been sacked and rifled. The pillage 
lasted several days." 

{Extract from the 11th Report of the Belgian Commission of Inquiry.) 

The German Admission. 

During the inquiry made, in January, 1915, by Sub-Lieutenant Goetze, 
the Acting Burgomaster of Andenne submitted a hst of the victims. 
Concerning this list Goetze points out in his report : — 

"An examination of this list shows that only 196 people are absolutely 
proved to have been shot : 28 have merely disappeared." 

{German White Book of May 10th, 1915, B, Anlage 4.) 



TRANSLATION. 

A RMEE-OBERKOMMA NDO 

"To the Communal Authorities of the Town of Liege. 

"August 22nd, 1914. 

"The inhabitants of the town of Andenne, after ha\dng protested their 
peaceful intentions, made a treacherous surprise attack on our troops. 

"It was with my consent that the General had the whole place burnt 
down and about 100 people shot. 

"I bring this fact to the knowledge of the town of Li6ge so that its 
inhabitants may know the fate with which they are threatened if they take 
up a similar attitude. 

"Dum-dum bullets were subsequently found in a gunsmith's shop 
at Huy, of a kind of which I enclose you a specimen with the present document. 
If this happens again it will be necessary to call the persons in question to 
account. 

"The General Commanding-in-Chief, 

(S.) "von BtTLOW." 

27 



.POSTER PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE GERMAN MILITARY 

AUTHORITIES ON THE DAY OF THE MASSACRE. 

AUGUST 2IST, 1914. 




Par ordre de l'autorlt6 militaire AllemaQde 
occupant la ville d'Andenne, 

Tous les hommes sent retenus comme otages. 

Par coup de feu tire sur les troupes Aile- 
mandes, il y aura AU MOINSdeuxolages fusill6s 

Les otages seront nourris par les femmes, qui 
leur porteront le n^cessaire pres du pont a 6 
heures du soir et a 8 heures du matin. 

II est strictement defendu aux femmes de converser avec 
les otages. 

Toutes les Rues et Places publiques seront imm^diate- 
ment nettoyees PAR TOUTES LES FEMMES DE LA VILLE, 
sous peine d'arrestation. 

11 est formellement defendu de cireuler dans 
la ville apres 7 heures du soir et avant 7 heures 
du matin, sous peine de repression severe. 

Les raorts seront immediatement ensevelis sans aucune 
formality. 

Les jeunes gens k partir de 14 ans et les femmes devront pre- 
ter leur concours a toute requisition. 

II est strictement d6fendu de se montrer aux fen^tres, 
Andenne, le 21 aotiit 1914. 

Par ordre de I autorite militaire Allemande: 

L' Adjoint du BoargmMtre, Le Bourgmettre deiign^, 

D*^ Ledoyen. E. de Jaer. 

Le S«c-r<Uir«, 

Monrique. 

The massacres and pillages of Andenne occurred on August 20th, 21st and 
22nd, 1914. 

The German troops belonged to the 1st and 2nd regiments of Reserve of Guards 
and to a battalion of "Jaeger" of the Guards. They were commanded by General 
von Langermann. They included also a battalion of Pioneers commanded by 
Major Scheunemann. 

28 



The Truthfulness of the Reports of the Belgian Commission 
of Inquiry Demonstrated by a German Poster. 

The circumstances of the Andenne massacre are related in the nth Report of the 
Belgian Commission of Inquiry. Of this massacre the poster here reproduced (pubhshed 
by order of the German authorities) naturally makes no mention. 

The particulars of the repressive measures described in the poster should be 
compared with the following passages of the Commission's Report : — 

"About lo in the morning the officers dismissed the women, ordering them to collect 
the dead bodies and to wash away the stains of blood which defiled the street and the 
houses. About midday, the surviving men, to the number of 800, were shut up as 
hostages in three httle houses near the bridge ; but they were not allowed to go out of 
them on any pretext, and were so crammed together that they could not even sit down 
on the floor. The state of these prisons rapidly became indescribable. Later in the 
day the women were allowed to bring food to their husbands. Many of them, fearing 
outrage, had taken flight. The hostages were not finally released until the following 
Tuesday." 

The Testimony of the Bishop of Namur. 

' ' At Andenne there is, thank God, a sufficiency of verified facts to make it unnecessary 
to invent them. We will confine ourselves to relating the following from memory : — 

"i. On August 19th the men of the La Levee district were seized by the German 
troops and compelled to march before them and serve as a shield against the attacks 
of the Belgian soldiers in a reconnaissance in the South Wood. 

"2. Continuous ill-treatment was inflicted on a group of peaceful inhabitants of 
Peu d'Eau and Hautebise who had been sent to Landenne, Amay, and La Chartreuse. 

"3. The slaughter of civihans at Hautebise. On Thursday evening, August 20th, 
at the entrance of the town, infuriated soldiers fell upon them and killed them with the 
bayonet. About 15 persons, among whom were women and children, were massacred ; 
others already wounded were brutally finished off during the night. 

"4. Numerous and wanton acts of incendiarism were perpetrated, not by the 
artillery, as is stated, but by hand, accompanied by the pillage of the whole town. 

"5. The execution of a not yet ascertained number of innocent people, perhaps 
more than 200, of whom not one had fired, or even committed the least act of ill-will 
against the troops." 

[Protest of the Bishop of Namur, Mgr, Heylen, against the accusations in the 
German White Book, October 31st, 1915.) 



TRANSLATION. 

INHABITANTS OF ANDENNE. 

"By order of the German miUtary authority occupying the town of Andenne :— 

"All the men are held as hostages. 

"For every shot fired at the German troops, AT LEAST two hostages vi-ill be shot. 

"The hostages will be fed by the women, who will bring them their rations close 
to the bridge at 6 in the evening and 8 in the morning, 

"Women are strictly forbidden to converse with the hostages. 

"All streets and pubUc places will immediately be cleaned by all the women of the 
town, on pain of immediate arrest. 

"It is strictly forbidden to move about the town after 7 in the evening and before 
7 in the morning, on pain of severe punishment. 

"The dead will immediately be buried without any formaUty. The young people 
over 14 and the women must give their assistance in every case of requisition. 

"It is strictly forbidden to show oneself at the windows. 
** Andenne, August 21st, 1914. 

"By order of the German military authority, 

"The Assistant-Burgomaster, "The Burgomaster-Designate, 

"Dr. Ledoyen. "E. de Jaer. 

"The Secretary, 

"MONRIQUE." 

29 



PROCLAMATION BY THE MILITARY COMMANDER OF ANDENNE, 

APPEALING TO INFORMERS IN ORDER TO DISCOVER THE 

AUTHORS OF AN IMAGINARY PLOT.— AUGUST 22ND, 1914. 

pFoelamatioD 



Le 20 Aoiit de cette annee on a tire de nombreuses maisons 
de la ville d'Andenne sur les troupes Allemandes qui passaient 
par Ja ville, on a jete aussi des bombe?. II est stir, que la pre- 
miere attaque de feu eut lieu selon un certain plan tout en 
m^me temps dans plusieurs rues : daris la rue Brun, rue de 
rH6tel de Ville a la place des Tilleuls et plusieurs autres rues. 
Un uombre de personnes militaires so^t tu6s ou blesses et le 
materiel de guerre est endommage. 

Apres avoir refus6 les premieres attaques, on a tir6 de nou- 
veau de beaucoup de maisons plusieurs heures et encore le 21 
Aoilt, I'apres-midiA deux heures, un sous-officier futtud par un 
coup d'unedes maisons dela rue de I'HOtel de Ville, 

Les habitants coupables, qu'on a trouv6s jusqu'6, main tenant 
sont fusill6s par le Conseil de guerre, sans qu'il fut possible de 
trouver les personnes qui ont arrange le complot. 

On appelle cependant k Thonneur de la Ville d'Andenne, la- 
quelle est consid^r^e dans les yeux du monde civilise comme 
un nid de meurtriers et bandits. 

Peut-etre il est possible de r^tablir Thonneur de cette ville ; 
c'est pourquoi on invite les habitants dans leur propre int6r6t de 
communiquer k I'autorit^ militaire tout ce qui peut servir de 
progr^s de reveler le compiot et ses auteurs. 

Celui qui livre des preuves capables, recoit selon leur valeur 
une prime de 500 - 1000 francs. 

Les mesures qui ont et6 prises seront ou pourraient etre plus 
t6t adoucies des que I'enquete aura fait d^s progres pour faire 
connaitre les coupables. 

Le Commandant de la Ville. 

Andenne, le 22 aotlt 19i4. 

It will he noticed that the so-called "guilty" had been shot before the inquiry 
began. 



30 



TRAXSLATION. 

PROCLAMATION.* 

"On August 20th of this year there was firing from numerous houses 
of the town of Andenne on the German troops who were passing through the 
town ; bombs were also thrown. It is certain that the first outbreak of firing 
occurred in accordance with a pre-arranged plan, at precisely the same time 
in several streets : in the Rue Brun, the Rue de l'H6tel de Ville, the Place 
des Tilleuls, and several other streets. A number of soldiers have been killed 
or wounded and war material damaged. 

"After ignoring the first attacks, there was again firing from many houses 
for several hours, and again on August 21st, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, 
an under-officer was killed by a shot from one of the houses in the Rue de I'Hotel 
de Villc. 

"Those guilty inhabitants who have already been found have been shot 
by the Council of War, but it was not possible to find the persons who arranged 
the plot. 

"We appeal, however, to the honour of the City of Andenne, which appears 
in the eyes of the civilised world as a nest of murderers and bandits. 

"Perhaps it is possible to restore the honour of this town ; this is why 
the inhabitants are invited, in their own interest, to communicate to the 
military authority any information that may assist them to reveal the plot 
and its authors. 

"Any person furnishing evidence on which action' can be taken will 
receive a reward of 500-1,000 frs., according to the value of the evidence. 

"Relief from the measures which have been taken will be conditional 
on the progress of the inquiry as to who are the guilty parties. 

"The Commandant of the City. 
"Andenne, August 22nd, 1914." 



* The French of this proclamation is so bad that literal translation is 
impossible, but I have kept as close to the original as is consistent with 
intelligibihty. — Translator. 



31 



THE GERMAN "INQUIRIES" AT ANDENNE 

Let us see what the Bishop of Namur has to say on the subject 
of the German "inquiries." The Bishop went himself to Andenne 
to make an independent investigation. 



' ' Several inquiries have been made by the German authorities into the 
happenings at Andenne. In our opinion they tend very remarkably to establish 
the innocence of the population of Andenne, for the result is that the German 
authorities do not even attempt to establish either the origin of the firing, 
or the guilt of the clergy and civilians, or the legality of the burnings and 
massacres. 

"A first inquiry was held on August 23rd by Lieutenant Backhaus. This 
bore specially upon the following points : — ' What did the parish priest say 
from the pulpit on vSunday last ? Did he say that the inhabitants must shoot ? 
Did he ring to give the signal ? Was there a conspiracy ? Do you know 
who threw the bombs ?' 

"In the White Book there is no trace of this inquiry, probably because 
it was favourable to innocence. 

"For a long time past the charge against the honourable senior priest 
has been abandoned. All the officers and soldiers who passed through Namur 
and in the district between the Sambre and the Meuse have given an echo of it. 
Who has not heard these words which have served everywhere to terrorise : 
'Pastor Andenne, Kaput !' ? . . . 

"Lieutenant Goetze made, in January, 1915, a second inquiry, of which 
the official report has now been published. This officer seems to have been 
charged to carry his investigations not into the whole course of events, but 
into secondary circumstances : * Is it true that the Germans shot other doctors 
besides Dr. Camus ? That they killed seven persons in the same family ? 
That civilians have been placed before a mitrailleuse under threat of death 
if the fort fired ? That a young man was killed for having worn an empty 
cartridge as a charm ?' 

"After interrogating eleven notables, who had little to answer to this 
questioning which excluded the principal facts, the officer concludes 'that 
reports unworthy of belief have circulated in Andenne and are attributable 
to the mentahty of the people, which is, as a schoolmaster affirms, exceedingly 
silly.' " 

[Protest of the Bishop of Namur against the German White Book, 
October 31st, 1916.) 

32 



II. 
The Inquiry of Von Eulwege. 

On September 8th, 191 4, the Frankfurter Zetiung published an accourt 
by Dr. Alexander Berg, according to which the parish priest of Andenne had, 
by means of a bell, given the signal for attacking the German troops. At once 
the German Bureau for Catholic Defence, Pax, wrote to the military authorities 
of Andenne in order to ascertain whether this account was true. 

On December 8th, 191 4, Lieutenant-Colonel von Eulwege wrote, from 
Namur, the following letter : — 

"My personal inquiries from a large number of people, which were very 
carefully conducted, do not yield a single proof that the cur6 of Andenne 
excited the population to street fighting. Each one has a different story to 
tell about the events of last August 20th that explains itself ; the greater part 
of the people saw little of the actual fighting, as they were mostly crouching 
with fear in their cellars." 



33 



NOTICE ABOUT FOOD DISTRIBUTION AMONG THE POPULA- 
TION, SIGNED BY THE MILITARY COMMANDER OF ANDENNE. 

BEKANNTMACHUNG 

1. Die Versorgung der Bevolkerung mit Lebensmiteln wird 
durch die Kommandantur und die von ihr eingesetzte Zivilver- 
waltung von Andenne soweit wie moglich geregelt. 

2. Zu diesem Zwecke wirdt jeder freihandige Verkauf von 
Lebensmitteln verboten. 

3. Die Besitzer von Lebensmitteln haben der Verwaltung so- 
fort die vorhandenen Bestande zu melden. Den Eigentttmern 
wird die Anlieferungentweder durch Bargeld oder durch ge- 
stempelte spiiter Zahlbare Quittung beseheinlgt. Die restlose 
Anmeldung liegt im dringensten Interesse der Bevolkerung. 

4. Lebensmittel fur den Gebrauch auf zwei Tage ftlr die Fa- 
milie sind von der Anmeldung ausgenommen. 

5. Der Verwaltung stehen alle Menschen zur sofortingen 
Ernte zur Verfugung. Die gute Einbringung auch der zur Zeit 
herrenloson Felder ist mit alien Mitteln anzustreben. 

Die kominandantur. 

Andenne. Sonntaj? 23 VIll 1914. 



AVIS OFFICIEL 



Le ravitaillement de la population aera ftdt par leg soins de 
Tadministration militaire secourue par rAdminlBtration civile 
d' Andenne constitute per legouverneinentallemand,autant que 

possible. 

1. A ce sujet Ja vente de denrces et de vdvresest formellement 

interdite. 

2. Les propri^taires sont avisos de signaler tout de suite la 
quantite de leurs vivres. Les denr^s seront prises sur argent 
comptant ou sur bon remboursable. 

3. II serait dans I'interet de la population d'annoncer exacte- 
ment les quantit6s de leurs vivres. 

4. Les vivres ne d^passant pas deux jours pour la famille n'oiit 
pas besoin d'etre signales, 

5. Toutes les forces disponibles de la commune restent au soin 
de r Administration pour la r6colte. Les propri6tes abandonn^es 
seront recoltees de meme. 

Le Commandant de la Ville. 

Andenne, le 23 aoat 1914. 

34 



FAMINE AFTER MASSACRE. 

"Andenne has a working-class population. The administration 
had at once to feed the starving people. And as the result of a 
number of prisoners being released from day to day (work having 
completely ceased in the factories) there were thousands to be fed 
at the public expense. All these persons were employed in the 
public services. 

"The problem of revictualling the plundered and ruined town 
was solved by the devotion of this improvised committee, with 
the help of all public-spirited men. The Prussians would not hear 
of the former council being re-established. Its members saw that 
good could only be done by hastening to answer the appeal of the* 
provisional administration and offering it their assistance." 

{Report of the Abbe Bobon, communicated to the 
Belgian Government.) 



TRANSLATION. 

OFFICIAL NOTICE. 

"The revictualling of the population will be effected as far 
as possible b}^ the efforts of the Military Administration, assisted 
by the Civil Administration of Andenne constituted by the German 
Government. 

"i. In this connection, the sale of provisions and commodities 
is strictly forbidden. 

"2. Householders are advised to declare at once the quantity 
of their provisions. Commodities will be taken for cash or redeem- 
able voucher. 

"3. It would be in the interest of the population to declare 
exactly the quantity of their provisions. 

"4. Provisions not exceeding two days' supply for the family 
need not be declared. 

"5. All hands available will be at the disposal of the 
Administration for the gathering of the harvest. Properties 
abandoned will be harvested with the rest. 

"The Commandant of the Town. 
" Aftdenne, Atigttst 2^rd, 191 4." 

35 



NOTICE BY MAJOR SCHEUNEMANN, ANNOUNCING A FRENCH 
DEFEAT TO THE PEOPLE OF ANDENNE.— AUGUST 23RD. 1914. 

Andenne, Sonntag 23 VIll 1914. 

BEKANNTMACHUNG 

Zwischen Saarburg und Melz hat eine 
Schlacht stattgefunden bei der 21.000 
Franzosen gefangen worden sind. 

Seine Majestat der deutsche Kaiser 
KOnig von Preussen, Markgraf von 
Brandenburg 

HURRA ! 

SCHEUNEMANN 

Major und Detadiementsfuhrer, 

Andenne, dimanche, le 23 aoilt 1914. 

AVIS OFFICiEL 

Entre Saarburg et Metz il s'est trouve 
une grande bataille. Les troupes AUe- 
mandes ont fait 21.000 prisonniers fran- 
cais. 

Vive Sa Majeste I Empereiir tl'Allemagne, Hoi 
de Prusse el Markgrave de Brandeboiii'g ! 

SCHEUNEMANN 
Major et Chei de d^tachement.. 

Major Sche-unemann and his men, the 28th Pioneers, were the chief culprits 
in the massacres. 

36 



MASSACRE AND LOOTING ARE SUCCEEDED BY 
A POLICY OF DEMORALISATION. 

The notice opposite was evidently intended to demoralise the 
people — already down-hearted owing to the outrages of the previous 
days. It may be pointed out that the Wolff communique, dealing 
with this victory over the French, spoke only of 10,000 prisoners. 
Major Scheunemann added some 11,000 more to the number, so 
as to make it more impressive. 

A Similar Device after the Sack of Louvain. 

"After the massacres at Louvain, a group of civilians, taken 
prisoners, were shut up in the Military Riding School. On the 
morning of Saturday, August 29th, 19 14, officers came to announce 
to the prisoners the defeat of the French at Charleroi, that of the 
English at Mons, and the (invented) flight of King Albert." 

{Deposition of M. I. Vershiys, Librarian of the Seminaire 
Historique at Louvain University.) 



TRANSLATION. 

" Andenne, Sunday, August 2yd, 1914. 

OFFICIAL NOTICE. 

"Between Saarburg and Metz there has been a great battle. 
German troops have made 21,000 prisoners. 

"Long live His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King of 
Prussia and Margrave of Brandenburg ! 

"Scheunemann, 

"Major and Chief of Detachment " 



37 



LETTER FROM THE ASSOCIATION "LA MAISON DES OUVRIERS 
ANDENNAIS" (THE GUILD OF WORKMEN OF ANDENNE), INVITING 
ITS MEMBERS TO THE ANNIVERSARY SERVICE, CELEBRATED 
IN THE CHURCH OF ANDENNE. IN MEMORY OF THOSE MEMBERS 
KILLED BY THE GERMANS IN 1914— AUGUST 24TH. 191 5 




■ LA -iVI^ISON OES OUVRIBRS ANDBNNAIS, fcm cclchrcr, 
Mardi prochain s* Aoilt, i lo heiiies (//, It), en riigliy.v CollC'^iah 

d'Andcnne. iin service aitnivvis^irc p^>ur h repos dc I'jrm do scs 
membres : 



1); UM ^ 




H 



.. .. :,. . 'yy ASSfSTEH 
R, L — P. 

LA COMMrSSION. 



AndL'nne. /. 



I 



Note that the reference to- those "deceased the 23rd August, 1914," corre- 
sponds to the date of the massacre at Andenne. 

38 



STATISTICS OF THE CIVILIAN MASSACRES IN BELGIUM 
DURING THE FIRST MONTHS OF THE INVASION. 

The list of names given for Andenne by the Guild, whose invitation to a memorial service 
we reproduce, only represents a very small drop in the river of blood which flowed in Belgium 
during the first months of the invasion. The returns are not yet complete enough to establish 
the total, but it is possible to give the following details. 



Aerschot + 150. 

Louvain 4;^ 100 (including those killed at 
Greater Lou vain, 213). 



PROVINCE OF BRABANT. 

Herent, Kessel-Loo, 



and Corbeek-Loo, forming 



Liege - 

Herve - 

Barchon 

Battice 

Heure-le-Romain 



Ethe - 
Latour 



Andenne 
Aiivelais 



Charleroi 
Farciennes - 
Quaregnon-Jemappes 



Other places : 534. Total : 897. 

PROVINCE OF LIEGE. 

29 Louveigne - - - 29 Seilles 

44 Melon - - - 129 Soumagne 

32 Olne - - - . - 62 Sprimont 

36 Retinne - - - 41 Vis6 - 

27 Romsee - - - 31 Wandre 
Other places : 247. Total : 1,032. 

PROVINCE OF LUXEMBURG. 
197 Rossignol - - - 105 Tintigny 

71 
Other places : + 540. Total : + 1,000, 

PROVINCE OF NAMUR. 
+ 250 Namur - - - +75 Tamines 

55 Dinant - - - 606 Spontin 

Other places : 188. Total : 1,619. 

PROVINCE OF HAINAULT. 
+40 Lodelinsart- - - 24 Nimy- 

Couillet 



50 

165 

48 

30 
32 



90 



+400 
45 



Alos 



23 Marchienne-au-Pont - 24 
Hh70 Monceau-sur-Sambre - +70 
Other places : 63. Total : 349. 

EAST FLANDERS. 
The returns from this province are very incomplete, but we may mention : — 
L - - - - - - - +^0 Termonde, St. Gilles, Lebekke 

Total: +70. 

WEST FLANDERS. 

In tl)is province, again, inquiry has hitherto been impossible. We wiU only mention : — 

Staden : 28. Total : 28. 



30 



The same remark 
Heers - 



LIMBURG, 

applies. We have returns for : — 
3 Tongres 

Total : 22. 



17 



Cannes 



PROVINCE OF ANTWERP. 
Information is absolutely lacking. Allowing, therefore, for the lack of information from 
the four provinces of Antwerp, Limburg, East and West Flanders, we still have a 

Provisional total of 5,017. 



TRA\ SLAT ION. 

"THE WORKMEN'S GUILD OF ANDENNE will hold on Tuesday next, August 31st, 
at 10 o'clock (Belgian time), in the Parish Church of Andenne, an anniversary service for the repose 
of the souls of its members : — 

"MM. Charles Bonhivers", soldier, fallen for his country August 23rd, 1914. 

"Leon Bacus-Roquet, etc., etc 

"Armand and Victor Wilmotte, deceased August 23rd, 1914. 

" Your attendance is requested. 

"R.I. P. 

"Andenne, August 24th, I9J5." "The Committee. 

39 



PROCLAMATION BY CAPTAIN SCHULTZE. ANNOUNCING 
REGULATIONS FOR THE MOVEMENTS OF THE INHABITANTS 
OF ANDENNE.— AUGUST 25TH, 1914. 

PROOAimOli 



J'ai oonfiance en rAdministration et en la population que 
mainteilant chacun prend la peine d'obeir ^le plus severement 
aux ordres de la Gommandantur pour adoucir autant que pos- 
sible le malheur amen^ par les faits criminels de quelques habi- 
tants. 

C*est pourquoi je fais proefeder k tout ce qui empeche la libre 
circulation des habitants. Jevoudrais que person ae des habitants 
d*Andenneet de Seilles nefasse usage de cetteliberte sinonpour 
la prosperity de la commune. 

Les Adm'nistrations d'Andenne et de Seilles travaillent 
avec moi pendant le jour et la nuit pour amener des 6tats r^gl^s. 

il faut adresser toutes les demandes de ravitaillement et de 
prosp6rit6 directement aux Administrations d'Andenne et de 
Seilles qui out aussi la procuration d'engager chacun ^ 
travaiUor. 

L'arm^e allemande montre la plus grande severite et Anergic 
si elle est attaqu^e perfldement par les habitants ; mais elle 
souhaite sinc^rement la justice et Thumanite envers le peuple 
si la conduite des habitants le permet. 

Der Kommandant, 
SCHULTZE 
Hauptmann. 

Andenne. le 25 aoUt 1914. 

It will be noticed that the poster mentions ' ' the criminal acts of some of the 
inhabitants." The German White Book, published nearly a year later, mentions 
a "popular insurrection" [Volksauf stand). 



40 



AFTER THE CRIMES OF THE REGULAR ARMY. 
THE AMUSEMENTS OF THE LANDSTURM. 

After the departure of von Langermann's troops, the troops of 
the Landsturm arrived at Andenne. This is how they conducted 
themselves : — 

"Several weeks later we returned to Andenne. A strong force of the 
Landsturm was quartered there for two or three days. They sacked 
M. Brosse's house, and stole things from Mme. Carelle, whose husband, an 
old man, had been killed. They stole wine from Mme. Bacu's. 

"About 6 o'clock one Sunday evening, as the tram came along, a soldier 
attempted an assault on a lady who lives next door to us, and who was on 
her doorstep with her little boy." 

THE PARALLEL OF LOUVAIN. 

At Louvain, too, the depredations of the Landsturm were 
succeeded by the crimes committed by von Boehn's regular troops. 

"We arrived at Louvain, which was swarming with soldiers. The 
battahon of Landsturm from Halle came in, dragging after it all sorts of things, 
mostly bottles of wine. Many of the men were drunk. . . . The battalion 
entered the town in close ranks, and broke into the first houses in order to 
loot — I beg pardon — to requisition wine and other things as well. It was 
like a pack of hounds let loose : every one did what he fancied. The officers 
led the way, and set a good example." 

(Extract from the diary* of Gaston Klein, of the 1st Company of the fix! I e 
Landsturm, under date of August 29th, 1914.) 



rnANSLATWN. PROCLAMATION. 

"I have confidence in the Administration and in the population, 
that ever}^ one will now be careful to obey as strictly as possible 
the orders of the Kommandantur, in order to alleviate as far as 
possible the misfortune caused by the criminal acts of a few 
inhabitants. 

"For this reason I am opposed to any step which prevents 
the free circulation of the inhabitants. I trust that none of the 
inhabitants of Andenne and Seilles will use their liberty to oppose 
the interests of the commune. 

"The Administrations of Andenne and Seilles are working with 
me day and night to bring about a settled state of affairs. 

"All questions of revictualUng and welfare must be addressed 
directly to the Administrations of Andenne and Seilles, which have 
also the power to require the inhabitants to work. 

"The German army displays the greatest severity and prompti- 
tude if it is treacherously attacked by the inhabitants, but it 
sincerely desires to show justice and humanity towards the people, 
if the conduct of the inhabitants permits. 

"The Commandant, 

"SCHULTZE, 

"Andenne, August 2Sth, 1914." "Hauptmann. 

* In the possession of the Belgian Headquarters. 
41 



CAPTAIN SCHULTZE'S FAREWELL TO THE INHABITANTS OF 
ANDENNE.— AUGUST 28th. 1914. 

AUS HABITANTS 
d'Andenne 

Nous donnons connaissance k la population de la proclamation que 
vient de nous remettre, en partant, le Commandant militaire : 

Je quitte cette ville dans I'attente qu'elle mettra en oeuvr6 — 
comme dans les derniers jours ainsi que pour I'avenir — tout ce 
qui pent servir aux bonnes regies de conduite envers I'arm^e al- 
lemande. 

Je transmets le nouveau pont a la ville pour son usage et I'o- 
blige de procurer pour sa 8tiret6 et de le tenir en bon 6tat. 

Le prochain temps il restera ici une petite garuison, laquelle 
sera nourrie et log^epar la ville. 

Si toutes les forces restent attel^es k la prosp6rit6 de la ville 
d'Andenne et de Seilles, ces localit^s seront bient6t gurries des 
graves blessures qui a valu la guerre & ces communes de leur 
proprefaute. 

SCHULTZE 

Hauptmann. 
Andenne, le 28 aoM 1914. 



Nous profitons de cette occasion pour f(61iciter et remercier les 
habitants d'Andenne pour la fa^on admirable dont ils se sont 
comportes pendant ces derniers jours et nous les engageons 
vivement k aider TAdministration Communale & reparer autant 
que possible, les grands malheurs dont nous avons 6t6 ^prouv^. 

L' Adjoint du Boiii>8nnMtre. Le BonrgSMtre diltfui par I'tLVtoriti MiliUirt, 

D'Ledoyen. E. de Jaer. 

Le Secretaire, 

Monrique. 

Andenne. le 28 aotkt 1914. 



42 



The Bridge of Andenne and the Reason for the Massacres 
of August 20th, 21st and 22nd. 1914. 

On his departure, Commandant Schultze presented to the inhabitants the *' new 
bridge" over the Meuse, connecting Andenne with Seilles. The old bridge, destroyed 
by the Belgian Army, played a part in the tragedy which deserves to be mentioned. 
Let us compare the four following texts : — 

I. 
"The German troops, who wished to cross to the left bank of the Meuse, arrived 
at Andenne on Thursday, August 19th, in the morning. Their advance guard of Uhlans 
reported that the bridge was not available. A regiment of Belgian infantry had blown 
it up at 8 o'clock on the same morning." 

{Extract from the 11th Report of the Belgian Commission of Inquiry.) 

II. 
"On account of the destruction of the bridge of F., I order: — 
"The district will pay a special contribution of 10 milHon francs as a fine. This is 
brought to the notice of the public, who are informed that the method of assessment 
will be notified later, and that the payment of the said sum will be enforced with the 
utmost severity. The village of F. will be immediate^ destroyed by fire, with the 
exception of certain buildings kept for the use of troops." 

{Extracts from " L' Inter prete Militaire" {" Zum Gebrauch in Feindesland" — for use 
in an enemy country), a manual published at Berlin in 1906.*) 

in. 

"The destruction of bridges, tunnels, and railway Hnes Mali have to be regarded 
as hostile acts." 

{Proclamation of Von Emmich, reproduced in this hook, page 2.) 

IV. 

"/. 9. Creil. Die Briicke {eiserne) gesprengt ; dafiir Strassen in Brand gesteckt, 
Civilisten erschossen." 

["September ist. Creil (France). The bridge (iron) blown up ;t ofi account of 
that streets set on fire, civihans shot."] 

{Extract from the diary of an unnamed soldier of the 32nd Infantry Regiment of the 
Reserve, 4th Reserve Corps. Photograph and text in " Les violations des lois de la Guerre 
par I'Allemagne," vol. I., p. 82. Paris : Berger-Levrault, 1915. Published by the French 
Ministry for Foreign Affairs.) 

TRANSLATION. 

TO THE INHABITANTS OF ANDENNE. 

"We call the attention of the population to the proclamation which the Military 
Commandant has just handed to us on leaving : — 

"I am leaving this town in the expectation that it will carry out in the future, as 
during the last few days, a poUcy of good behaviour towards the German Army. 

"I hand over the new bridge to the town for its use, and require the people to be 
responsible for its safety and to maintain it in good condition. 

"For the present, a small garrison will remain here, which will be fed and lodged 
by the town. 

"If all energies are permanently directed towards the prosperity of the town of 
Andenne and Seilles, these localities will soon be cured of the grave wounds which the 
war has inflicted upon these communes, through their own fault. 
"Andenne, August 28th, 1914. "Schultze, 

' ' Hauptmann. 

"We are profiting by this occasion to congratulate and to thank the inhabitants 
of Andenne for the admirable manner in which they have behaved during these latter 
days, and we urge them strongly to assist the Communal Administration to repair as 
far as possible the great misfortunes which we have experienced. 

" The Burgomaster delegated by the Military Authority. 
" The Assistant-Burgomaster, ' "E. de Jaer. 

"Dr. Ledoyen. " The Secretary, 

"MONRIQUE. 

"Andenne, August 28th, 1914." 

* " It contains," says the introduction, " the French text of the greater part of the documents, letters, 
proclamations, and certain orders, of ■yphich it may be necessary to make use in time of war." 
t The bridge of Andenne also was a large iron bridge. 

43 



^PROCLAMATION BY CAPTAIN BECKER, REINTRODUCING THE 
" REIGN OF TERROR " AT ANDENNE.— AUGUST 29TH, 1914. 

PROCLAMATION 

1. X^Siniv^^fcu^'^^^^^ 1914, midi, 
toutes ies horloges devronl etre misos a llioiire 
allemande {une heure plus tot). 

2. Les rassemblemenls de phis de 3 per- 
sonnes sont strictenienl A^kttAmji>^/^ y^.^^, 

5. Pour circular apres 8 heiires du soir, il 
faut Tautopisation de M. le Commandant. 

4. Les armes devront etres remises an gar*de 

Lorqn'on trouvera encore des armes dans les 
maisons, apres Iheureflxee, le propri^taire 
sera pendu. 

5. Les soldats ailemands demandant la tran- 
quility absolue, les ouvriers peuvent retourner 
travailler de suite. La moindre r6volte de la 
part des habitants AURA POUR CONSEQUENCE 
L'mCENDIE COMPLETE DE LA VILLE, et les 
hommes sepont pendus. 

-^SI^VIOHS; 

Obit et Commandant en chef 



This poster, as shown in the photograph, was prepared beforehand. In 
order to make tt applicable to Andenne, the necessary details were added in 
pencil. The name of Captain Simons was crossed out in pencil and replaced 
by that of Becker. 

44 



A RIVAL FOR COMMANDANT BECKER AT NAM UK. 

Proclamation posted up in Namur on August 25th, 1914. 

" I. Belgian and French soldiers must be delivered up as prisoners of 
war before 4 o'clock in front of the prison. Citizens who do not obey will be 
condemned to hard labour for life in Germany. 

"2. A rigorous inspection of houses will commence at 4 o'clock. Every 
soldier found will be immediately shot. 

"Arms, powder, and dynamite must be given up at 4 o'clock. Penalty : 
being shot. 

' ' Citizens who know of a store of the above must inform the Burgomaster 
under pain of hard labour for life. 

"3. Every street will be occupied by a German guard, who will take ten 
hos|;ages from each street and keep them under surveillance. If there is 
any rising in the street, the ten hostages will be shot. 

"4. Doors may not be locked, and at night after 8 o'clock there must 
be lights in three windows in every house. 

"5. No one is allowed in the street after 8 o'clock. The inhabitants of 
Namur must understand there is no greater and more horrible crime than to 
compromise the safety of the town and the life of its citizens by criminal acts 
against the German Army. 

"The Commander of the Town, 

"von Bulow.* 

"Namur, August 25th, 1914. 

"{Printed by Chantraine.)" 

* This von Biilow, commanding the 15th Brigade of the Reserve, should 
not be confused with General von Biilow, Commander-in-Chief of the 
2nd German Army. 



TRANSLATION. 



proclamation; 



"i. From Saturday, August 29th, 1914, midday, all the clocks must be 
set to the German time (one hour earlier). 

"2. Assemblies of more than three persons are strictly forbidden under 
penalty of fines. 

"3. No one is allowed to go about after 8 p.m. without permission from 
M. le Commandant. 

"4. Arms must be deposited with the guard at the Casino, by noon on 
the 29th instant. 

"If any arms are found in houses after this date, the householder will 
be hanged. 

"5. Since the German troops require absolute calm to be maintained, 
workmen can return to work at once. The least revolt on the part of the 
inhabitants will result in the complete burning of the town, and tlie men will 
be hanged. 

"Simons,* 
"Lieut. -Col. and Commander-in Chief. 

' ' Becker, 
"Captain and Commander-in-Chief." 

* The passages italicised were written in in pencil, and the name " Simons " 
was struck through, on the placard posted at Andenne. 

45 



PROCLAMATION TO THE INHABITANTS OF ANDENNE MADE BY 

THE PROVISIONAL COMMUNAL ADMINISTRATION. 

AUGUST 30TH, 1914. 

k Rabitanb d'Hnlenoe 

Chers Concitoyens, 

Nous sommes heureux de vous annoncer que rautorit6 
militaire montrera la pins grande bienveillance a notre 6gard 
si, comme nous n'en doutons, la bonne population d'Andenne 
continue a rester bien tranquillc;, a travailler avec courage et 
a obeir docilement a rautorite. COMME ELLE LA FAIT 
JUSQU'A PRESENT, ce dont nous la remercions. 

Dans une fftte militaire, a laquelle lautorit^ militaire a bien 
voulu nous prier de prendre part; en notre presence et devant 
plusieurs notables d'Andenne, notamment M. le doyen Cartiaux, 
toutes les troupes, y compris les officiers, ont a plusieurs re- 
prises cri6 des HURRA pour Andenne. 

Au nom de vous tous. nous leur avons adress^ nos remer- 
ciements 6mus. 

Chers amis, ayez oonfiance en nous, nous travaillons de 
toute notre ame au salut d'Andenne. 

Nous avons assure Tautoritd militaire que les soldats pou- 
vaient etre parfaitement tranquilles au milieu de nous, quau- 
cun de nous ne voudrait commettre la moindre agression, qu'au 
contraire, tous, nous traiterons rarm6e allemande, avec une 
ENTIERE LOYAUTfi. 

Nous avons repondu de vous En ^change, nous ne-vou? de- 
mandons qu'une chose, c'est de continuer a faire ce que vous 
avez fait iusqu'aujourd'hui, et si, par impossible, il pou^ait se 
trouver parmi nous un mauvais sujet qui serait capable de com- 
promettre les honn6tes gens, indiquez-le nous, il ne faut pas que 
nos braves concitoyens soient responsables des crimes d'un 
sc616rat. 

Que I'armee allemande sache bien que I'administration com- 
munale mettra le plus grand empressement a lui livrer le cou- 
pable dun acte de mauvais gr6, quel qu'il soit. 

Chers concitoyens, patience, et courage, pour supporter les 
privations. Soyez tranquilles, nous sommes avec vous. 

L'AfljoiDt dii Bourgraestre, Le Bourgmestre d^I^gu^ par Taulorit^ militaire, 

D^ LEDOVEN. E. DE JAER. 

Le Secr^Uire, Le Con»eiller, 

MONRIQUE. LAHAYE. 

Andenne, le 30 aotit 1914. 

Note the cynicism of the Germans, who, after declaring that Andenne was 
"a nest of murderers and bandits," and after sacking the town, end by shouting 
"Hurrah !" in its honour. 

46 



EFFECTS OF THE REIGN OF TERROR. 

To understand the import of this poster, it is necessary to know the 
following facts : — 

"The Burgomaster of Andenne, Dr. Camus, aged 64, had been killed 
by the Germans during the sack of the town. Also, the Sheriff, Victor 
Davin, a manufacturer, aged 37, had been put to death. 

"The German authorities nominated a communal council of four members. 
M. E. de Jaer, the registrar, first condemned to be shot as a franc-tireur, in 
spite of his 70 years, then held as a hostage, was finally nominated as mayor. 

"Dr. Ch. Ledoyen, who for some time believed that his last hour had 
come, was nominated assistant mayor. 

"M. Ch. Lahaye, veterinar}' surgeon, was named a member of the council, 
as also was M. Jos. Monrique, a candidal notaire ; the latter was made Secretary 
an hour later. 

"These gentlemen and some hospital attendants had passes which they 
had to show to the plunderers they met in the streets, whose bayonets were 
red with the blood of their victims." 

{Report of the Abbe Bobon, communicated to the Belgian Government.) 

THE "MILITARY FETE" AT ANDENNE. 

"One word as to the fete at Andenne. The commandant, Becker, who 
regarded any group of more than three people talking together as a dangerous 
assembly, and who threatened to destroy the whole town, invited the 
communal authorities and some people on whom the officers were quartered 
to be present at a feu de bivouac at the Place des Tilleuls. This was a little 
entertainment, during which the soldiers sang serious songs, and there were 
speeches with cheers for Andenne. The guests bore this little military 
entertainment with resignation." 

{Same Report.) 



TRANSLATIOS. 

TO THE INHABITANTS OF ANDENNE. 

"Dear Fellow-citizens, 

' ' We are happy to announce to you that the military authority will show 
the greatest goodwill towards us if, as w^e doubt not, the good people 
of Andenne continue to remain perfectly quiet, to labour with courage, and 
to obey authority with docility, as they have done up to the present, for 
which we thank them. 

"At a military fete, at which the miUtary authority expressly invited us 
to be present, all the troops, including the officers — in our presence, and before 
many of the notables of Andenne, and Dean Cartiaux in particular — repeatedly 
shouted "Hurrah for Andenne!" 

"In the name of all of you, much affected, we expressed our thanks. 
"Dear friends, have confidence in us ; we are working with all our souls 
for the safety of Andenne. 

"We have assured the military authority that the soldiers might be 
perfectly at ease in our midst, that none of us w^ould wish to commit the least 
aggression — that, on the contrary, we shall treat the German Army with 
complete loyalty. We have been responsible for you. In return, we ask you 
only one thing : it is, to continue to do what you have done until to-day, 
and, if, by some impossible chance, there should be among us an ill-conditioned 
person who might be capable of compromising honest people, point him out 
to us ; for our worthy fellow-citizens must not be responsible for the crimes 
of a scoundrel. 

"Let the German Army be sure that the communal administration will 
with the utmost promptness hand over to it any one guilty of an act of ill-will, 
whoever he may be. 

"Dear fellow-citizens, patience and courage to support privation. Be 
easy in your minds ; we are with j^ou. 

"The Burgomaster delegated by the Military Authority, 

"E. DE Jaer. 
' ' The Assistant-Burgomaster, ' ' The Secretary, ' ' The Councillor, 

"Dr. Ledoyen. "Monrique. "Lahaye. 

"Andenne. August 30th. 1914." 

47 



PROCLAMATION BY CAPTAIN BECKER. PROMISING THE 

INHABITANTS TO HOLD A PRELIMINARY INQUIRY " IN THE 

EVENT OF A REVOLT." 

pFoelamatioD 



J'ai rimpression que la plus grande partie des habitants 
d^sirent la tranquility, aussi je les invite k ne pas quitter la Ville. 

Avant d'employer les moyens violents je ferai faire une 
enqu^te s6v6re pour d6couvrir les coupables au cas oii une 
r6volte ^laterait. 

J'attends done de la population d'Andennequ'ellemettra tout 
en ceuvre pour qu aucun soldat allemand ne soit molest^; sinon 
je serai force d'agir d'apr6s les mesures de ma premiere 
proclamation. 



BECKER 

Capitaine L. I. R. 29 
et Commandant eh chef. 



48 



A REAL GERMAN INQUIRY AT HUY. 

Order of the Day addressed by the Commandant of Huy 

to his Soldiers. 

"August 25th, 1914. 

"Last night shooting took place. It has not been proved that 
the inhabitants of the town were still in possession of arms. Nor is 
there any proof that the civil population took part in the shooting ; 
on the contrary, it would seem that the soldiers were under the 
influence of alcohol and opened fire under an incomprehensible 
fear of an enemy attack. 

"The conduct of the soldiers during the night has made a 
shameful impression, with a few exceptions. When officers or 
non-commissioned officers set fire to houses, without permission or 
order from the commandant, or, as in the present case, from the senior 
officer, and when they encourage the troops by their attitude to 
burn and loot, it is an act of the most regrettable kind. I expect 
the strictest instructions to be given generally as to the attitude 
towards the life and property of the civil population. I forbid 
firing in the town without officers' orders. The bad conduct of 
the troops has resulted in the serious wounding of a non-conmiissioned 
officer and a soldier by German shots. 

"voN Bassewitz, Major, 

"Commandant." 

{Document found in a German camp near Huy, and communicated 
by M. Vandervelde, Belgian Minister of State.) 



'TRANSLATION. 

PROCLAMATION. 

"I am under the impression that the greater portion of the 
inhabitants desire tranquillity, therefore I invite them not to leave 
the town, 

"Before employing violent means, I shall make a strict inquiry 
to discover the guilty persons in case a revolt should break out. 

"I therefore expect of the population of Andenne that it will 
do everything to ensure that no German soldier shall be molested, 
otherwise I shall be forced to act in accordance with the measures 
of my first proclamation. 

" Becker, 
"Captain, L.I.R. 29, and Commandant-in-Chief." 

49 



NOTICE PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE MILITARY AUTHORITIES. 
ORDERING A CENSUS OF THE INHABITANTS.— OCTOBER 2nd, 1914. 

COMMUNE D'ANDENNE 



AVIS 



Par ordre de lAutorit^ Mililaire Allemaiide : 

Les habitants sont inform^s 
dece qu'ils ont ^ inscrire im- 
m^diatement, sur la porte de 
leurs maisons, dune fagon tr^s 
visible, le nombre d'hommes et 
de femmes qui occupent chaque 
Maison. 

Les enfanls au dessous de \ 5 ans ne doivent 
pas elre renseign^s. 

Les conlrevenanfs 011 eeiix qui feronl une 
fausse declaration seronl ires severement punis 
et s'exposent a de grands d6sagr6ments. 

Le Bourgmestre. iik^ai par I'Autoriti Militaire 

E.DEJAER. 

Andenne, le 2 octobre 1914. 



JlDdeno* lap Veuve Warnotto 
ANOTHER CALAMITY FOR ANDENNE. 
In December, 1916, the Germans carried off 760 inhabitants of Andenne,* 
who were deported to Germany. They were all men between 17 and 55 years of 
age, belonging to every class of society. 

The approaches to the station were guarded by sentries with fixed bayonets. 
The relatives of the deportees broke through the military cordon in order to bid a 
last farewell to those who were leaving. 



* The population of A ndenne numbered 7,800. 
50 



TWO AND A HALF YEARS LATER. 

Circular sent out to the head of each family in the zone of the 
itapes by order of the military authorit\^ in execution of the decree 
of March 14th, 1917, providing for the seizure and deportation in 
case of necessity of every inhabitant of Belgium. 

Sheet 

Name and head of family 



^.— MEN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 18 AND 40. 

Surname Christian Name Date of Birth Profession 

Place of Business Number of Identity Card 

Remarks or Observations 

S.— MEN BETWEEN THE AGES OF (i) 15 AND 17. (2) 41 AND 60. 

Surname Christian Name Date of Birth Profession 

Place of Business Number of Identity Card 

Remarks or Observations 

C— W^OMEN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 15 AND 35. 

Surname Christian Name Date of Birth Profession 

Place of Business If married. Profession of Husband 

Number of Identity Card Remark^ jr Observations 



i).— WOMEN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 36 AND 60. 

Surname Christian Name Date of Birth Profession . 

Place of Business If married. Profession of Husband 

Number of Identity Card Remarks or Observations 



E. — What is the Name of your Employer ? . . 
What is the nature of your Employment 



F. — If you keep an Hotel, a I-odging-house, a Caf6, a Drink-shop, 
or any kind of Workshop or Factory, state the ages of the Proprietor and 
of his Wife 

Certified as verified and checked, Certified as correct, 

jNIons, April. . . ., 1917. Mons, April. . . ., 1917. 

District Agent. (Signature of head of family.) 



TRANSLATION. 

Commune of Andenne. 

NOTICE. 

By Order of the German Military Authority. 

"The inhabitants are informed that they are immediately to 
write on the doors of their houses, so that it may easily be seen, 
the number of men and women who occupy each house. 

"Children under 15 years of age need not be included. 

"Offenders, or those who make a false declaration, will be most 
severely punished and exposed to much unpleasantness. 

"The Burgomaster, delegated by the Military Authority, 

" Andenne, October 2nd, 1914." ' 

51 



III. 



THE REIGN OF TERROR 
AND OF ARBITRARY MEASURES 



APPEAL BY THE PROVISIONAL COMMUNAL AUTHORITIES OF 

LOUVAIN FOR HOSTAGES TO REPLACE THOSE ALREADY 

DETAINED.— OCTOBER 4TH, 1914. 



Ville de Louvain 

i MES mHITITEN!! 



Lt*^ lialiil.'iitiN <li> LiiiH.iin mil •'■d- iiiroiiiK's ili* lii ('iiii*<lilulioiHrola;:t's (]ui 
u>u> i">l rr-i'litiiH-i* |>jr i Vuldiili- Mjlil.iin* \l|iiiiiiiiili-. 

Ndiio ;i\|iiis |mi iiltti'iiir i|im> cr> otit^it's, iiiiHit(^aiir<iM>iil uu iioiiiltrr ili' <*iiii|. 
oil-Ill lii-licrurN iiii (oiiM-iil tifs Vviv> l)iHui|iiraMi>, rii«> Jiistf l.i|isc. on i\> 
«riiiil •-itiiri)rl;i(ilfiiii>iil iiiNhillr> <-l jiiiiiroid 11*11111* liiN>rl«' rrlalivc .i riiili-iieni' 
III (iuii\i-iil. 

Jc (.»> a|i|M-l iiii i-itiM-iMir> di-voui- <lc nies roiH-ilu)<>M.s |MHir ijinU assiimnil a 
our lie roll- <•• st»r\Hf. aliii ilc iir pas ]»rn|nn^or la (itMfiiliuii ilc rcti\ i|iii m* 
Mill acinTritM-nirol KniTt-m |»iPiiiier lii'u, el |>oiir viilrr ilr si- voir |ii-<-iiilir 
li* fiini- par I Viiliirilr Aiteiiiaiitif 

U'> iiiscriplMiiis MToiil n-t-ws <'Jiai|ur jour par li*s Peres Uoiiiiiiiruiiis. rur 
liislr LipM", !<• malm ile 'J li. a tUfi. el rH|>r«s-ini<li ile 2 li. a 3 li. Lr service 
I'olaRe eouiiiieiiee iliaipie jour a '■) li. ilu soir l,rs repas miiiI louriiis graliiile- 
neiil par I inleriiieiliairf till (iuutent. 



IjHiv.iin. i OvUiUro tlHi. 



Lr Secrelaire loitiiuunal. 

Eiii^. M;irguery. 



Lp BourKOiesCre provisoire, 

K, INEKINCX. 



Uuvaaii Imp £ {XARPENTim. rut de I 



STAD LEUVEN 



BEROEP 



Do iiiMonrrs \aii l,eii\eii /ijii verv\ilir>;il mweesl \aii lul laiislelleii ^yTii 
uieiiwe jiij/elaaisdie xeieiM-lil jteweesl zijiiilooi- lii* DiliNclie Krij.uv'^erlieiil 

Wij /ijii er in ^eliikl le lM>koiiieii ilal <lie .!4|jxi'iaar>. in <fe/eii iH(!(''ulilik leu 
j;ejalle \au \ijf, /.oinleii j4eli(ii>>e>.l ziju in IjvJ kl(io>ler iler Paler* Itoiiiiiiieaiieii 
Jii.slu> LipMiis ^Iraal, waar /.ij iiaar l^iliodieii /iillen \uiiieii en van eene 
lielrekkelijke vrijiieiil ;;enielen, liinuin lie! klonMer. 

Ik line iH'roop op ilexeiropojlerini; uiijiicr •>tii(|Niieiti>leii opilal /ij lieiirle|inu> 
ilezeii ilieiisl zoiuleii \erzekereii, leii eiiiile ile.i{e\aiiKeiiM'lia(> uiel le veilen^en 
vail lieu ilie /.ieli e<lelnioe<ti!> ile ecrsleii aaiixelMMien lielil>en, en oiii le \er 
niijiien dal zv iloor de Diiilselie Overlieid iiij uiaelile ^enonieii vvordi-ii. 

UeiiiM-liriJvingeH /.ulleii aaii|{enoiiieu Honleu dour de Palers Doiiiiiiieaiien. 
Justus Lipsinsslraat, !» nior^eiis van *> lol lU tireii en > iiHiiiidda^> van "2 
Inl ."> iiren.iDediensI van ijij/etaar Itejsiiil alle da}:en van ."> iiieii s iianiidflaj;-.. 
De inuallijden vvordeu kosleluu:> veiM'liall door iieiniddetinu van liel klnosin. 



Lcuvcn, den i October lt)l4. 

De Gemeenlesekrelaris, 

Eug. Marguery. 



De lijdciijke litiryeiiieeMer, 

A. .\EKr\C\. 



l-euven - Druk. E CHARPESTIER, Naomsclit MM. lUs 



Louvain was sacked on August 25th, 1914, and the following days. It will 
be noted that more than a month after the sack of the town and the massacre of its 
inhabitants, the German authorities still demand hostages to he held responsible 
for their fellow-citizens. 



54 



COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY: THE TREATMENT OF HOSTAGES. 
Notice Posted up in Spa, Aywaille, Chatelineau, and in 
many other places, in August, 1914. 

WARNING. 

"As fresh attempts at assassination have been made upon persons forming part of 
the German Army, I have had persons from many locahties arrested as hostages. These 
will guarantee with their lives that no inhabitant will again dare to commit a malevolent 
action against German soldiers or attempt to damage the railway, telegraph, or telephone 
lines, or other objects useful to the operations of our army. 

"Persons not belonging to the army surprised in committing such actions will be 
shot or hanged. The hostages of the surrounding localities will suffer the same fate, 
I shall then have the neighbourhood burned to the last house, important towns and all. 
If the hostages attempt to escape, the locality to which they belong will be burned, and 
if captured the hostages will be hanged. 

"All inhabitants who give proof of their goodwill toward our troops are assured of 
the safety of their lives and property. 

"The Commandant entrusted with the Protection of the Railways, 

"Freiherr von Maltzahn." 

The Eventual Fate of the Hostages at Louvain. 

On the evening of August 25th, the District Commander, Major von Manteuffel, 
invited the hostages to issue proclamations to the inhabitants entreating them to 
maintain order, under the threat that if they disobeyed a fine of 20 million marks would 
be inflicted, the town destroyed, and the hostages hanged. 

The Hostages of Grivegnee. Commune of Grivegnee. 
IMPORTANT NOTICE. 

" The attention of those present is called to the following Notice issued by Major 
Dieckmann : — 

" '5. In order that the above-mentioned permit may not be abused, the Burgo- 
masters of Beyne-Heusay and Grivegnee must immediately prepare lists of persons who 
will be held as hostages for 24 hours each at Fort Fleron, from September 6th, 1914, at 
6 p.m., till September 7th at midday. 

" 'The life of these hostages depends on the population of the above-mentioned 
communes remaining quiet under any circumstances. 

" '6. From the list which is submitted to me I will designate persons who shall 
be hostages from midday to the following midday. If the substitute is not there at the 
correct time, the hostage must remain another 24 hours at the fort. After these 24 hours 
the hostage will incur the penalty of death if the substitute has not presented himself.' " 

{Extract from the proclamation made September 6th, 1914, from the Chateau des 
Bruyeres. The photograt>h of this Proclamation is published in H. DA VIGNON'S 
"BELGIUM AND GERMANY," page 92.) 



TRANSLATION. 

Town of Louvam. 

APPEAL TO MY FELLOW-CITIZENS. 

"The inhabitants of Louvain have been informed of the institution of hostages 
which is demanded of us by the German military authorities, 

"We have been able to arrange that these hostages — at present five in number — 
should be lodged at the Dominican Monastery, Rue Juste Lipse, where they will be 
comfortably cared for and have a certain amount of liberty inside the monastery. 

"I appeal to the devoted support of my fellow-citizens that they take this service 
in turn, so as not to prolong unduly the sojourn of th'ose who so generously offered them- 
selves at first, and to avoid being forcibly taken by the German authorities. 

"Offers will be registered every day by the Dominican Fathers, Rue Juste Lipse, 
from 9 to 10 a.m. and from 2 to 3 p.m. The service as hostage begins at 5 in the evening. 
Meals are furnished free through the intermediary of the convent. 
"Louvain. October 4th, 1914. 

"The Communal Secretary, " The Temporary Burgomaster, 

"EuG. Marguery. "A. Nerincx." 

55 



EXTRACT FROM AN ORDER OF THE DAY OF THE 24TH GERMAN 

RESERVE DIVISION, CONCERNING THE TAKING OF HOSTAGES. 

AUGUST 23RD, 1914. 




"It is certain that the German soldiers were imbued beforehand with the 
idea that they would be attacked by civilians. This produced among them, from 
the very beginning of their entry into Belgian territory, a state of fear and nervous- 
ness, for which the population was immediately made to suffer." 

{10th Report of the Belgian Commission of Inquiry.) 



56 



Arbitrary Measures authorised by the German Superior Command. 

HOSTAGES IMPRISONED IN CHURCHES AND OTHER 
" APPROPRIATED " BUILDINGS. 

ARTICLE 50 OF THE HAGUE CONVENTION. 
No collective penalty, pecuniary or other, is to be imposed 1 on 
communities in respect of individual acts for which they cannot be held 
collectively responsible." 

Extracts from the Report of the Belgian Commission of Inquiry. 

I. 

"On Wednesday morning, August 26th, the Germans brought to the 
station squares of Louvain a group of more than 75 persons, including several 
prominent citizens of the town, among whom were Father Coloboet and 
another Spanish priest, and also an American priest. The men were brutally 
separated from their wives and children, and after having been subjected to 
the most abominable treatment by the Germans, who several times threatened 
to shoot them, they were forced to march to the village of Campenhout in 
front of the German troops. They were shut lip in the village church, where 
they passed the night. About 4 o'clock the next morning, a German officer 
told them they had better go to confession, as they would be shot half an hour 
later. About half -past four they were liberated. Shortly afterwards they 
were again arrested by a German brigade, which forced them to march before 
them in the direction of Malines. 

II. 

"On August 28th a crowd of 6,000 to 8,000 persons — men, women, and 
children, of every age and condition — was conducted under the escort of a 
detachment of the 162nd Regiment of German Infantry to the riding school 
of the town, where they spent the whole night. The place of confinement was 
so small in proportion to the number of the occupants that all had to remain 
standing ; and so great were their sufferings that in the course of this tragic 
night several women lost their reason and children of tender years died in 
their mothers' arms. 

Ill, 

"The church (of Aerschot) presents a lamentable aspect. Everything 
was in the greatest disorder. The floor was Uttered with hay, on which a 
great number of inhabitants, who were, as we know, shut up in the church, 
have slept for many days. 

IV. 

"The women and children had all been shut up in a convent, where they 
were kept prisoners for four days. These unhappy women remained in 
ignorance of the lot of their male relatives. . . . The first day the monks of 
the convent had given them a certain supply of food. On the remaining 
days they got nothing but raw carrots and green fruit." 

TRA NSLA TION. 

Extract from an Order of the Day of the Army Corps, August 23rd. 

" 24th Reserve Division. " Divisional Headquarters, Crupet, 

"August 23rd. 1914. 

"Par. 2. — The frequency of treacherous attacks on our troops and the 
numerous sacrifices they have cost, make it appear necessary to take the 
strictest measures. The choice of means to be adopted in individual cases is 
left to the discretion of the commander of the troops. 

"The local commandants, in particular, are to consider the best measures 
to take in individual cases. 

' ' It may, for example, be advantageous to intern all the inhabitants in 
churches or other suitable buildings, to guard them there and to take hostages. 
The latter must on no account be set free again, but must be handed over to the 
next troops or columns which occupy the place. 

"It is an estabUshed fact that people Jiave fired even out of houses 
protected by the Red Cross (Geneva) flag.* 

"Notice is hereby given to the commandants in order that they may 
take the necessary steps according to the circumstances." 

• This probably alludes to the eye hospital of Dr. Bribosia at Namur. The Germans, under 
pretext that there had been firing from the hospital, kiUed two French and two Belgian soldiers 
nursed there, and set the building on fire (August 23rd, 1914). C/, H. DAVIGNON, " BELGIUM 
AND GERMANY," pages 40-41. 

57 



NOTICE BY SERGEANT HAMICH TO THE INHABITANTS OF 
MONT-ST.-GUIBERT.— OCTOBER 5TH, 1914. 



AVIS 



1. Tous les hommes liabitant la commune ag6s de 18 a 45 ans, riches 
ou pauvres, doivent se presenter djBmain mardi 6 octobre, & 7 henres 
du matin (heure beige) au contr61e a la gare. ^ 

2. Ces habitants ne peuvent plus changer de residence; leurs noms 
sont remis a I'autoritd militaire. 

Ceux qui ne donneraient pas suite d. cet ordre, qui chercheraient a 
s enfuir, seront faits prisonniers et s'exposeraient a dtre fasill6& 

Ia'h (iiniiJIrs drn coiitrevt'iliiiits sennit prim-M comiuo priMmnieren et lours hicns aneantis. 

•i. Ia^ Aii};hiiN. .Frnnciux ou JtusNos qui se tnmvcitt duns lu loculite doivent ttte remis a I'autnrite raililuire 
nlicmaMile. 11 vu (>.\t do nu^mo des II(>Ikvh ayant appartenti a I'armee, qui, sont dcHcrteurs ou out etc prisonniont. Le* 
eonlruveninits st^ront puniK do la mort 

4 Uw amies a feu do touto osi»eoe, qui sc tnmvcnt enoore en possession dos habitants, doivent «>tn' romisen 
iDuniHliatenioni an ( ommnnduiit dc la ^arc. Ceux qui seront encore trouves posscsseurs de ces armes. apri»» la piililt* 
ciijion do Oct uvis, seront rii.sill('>s. 

5. I/cs reunions |M>ur lo eontnWe auront lieu dc temps en telnps. L'iieiiro et le jour en seront donneii d'avaneo. 

<i. Ix>s |Nirapluies et los lii^tons sont iotei^its au contr6le. Lcs hommes ne fiourrout se presenter en etut d'ivroj^e. 

Monl-M-GnilM-rl. I«> "i Octohrc lOU. 

•'■*"••"" ^■" ••< '» «'»'' U H.>iirKmwtrr 

1IA5IM 11. Miu'onl E. WAITIKU 



It should be noted that Sergeant Hamich did not even deign to consult the 
burgomaster as to his signature. Burgomaster Wautier did not know the 
substance of the poster until after it had been put up* 

• Compare J. MassarVs " Comment les Beiges resistent a la Domination allemande." Paris : 
Payot, 1916. 



58 



ARBITRARY JUSTICE AND THE DEATH PENALTY— RIVALS OF HAMICH. 
NOTICE POSTED UP IN THIELT. 

IMPORTANT WARNING. 

"It has come to my knowledge that the inhabitants of the country are still hiding 
arms and munitions in their houses. 

"Those who still have arms in their possession (whether fire-arms, bows, cross-bows, 
arquebuses, or knives and swords of any description) will not be punished in any way if 
the arms and munitions are deposited by December 15th (noon precisely, German time) 
at the house of the burgomaster of the commune, to be handed over to the military 
commandant. 

"After the date indicated, all persons found in possession of arms or munitions will 
be shot. An account also will be demanded of the burgomasters concerned, and also of 
all the inhabitants of the houses or farms in which arms or munitions are found, as well as 
the neighbours of the guilty persons. 

' ' The death penalty will be imposed on all who know of the existence of arms or 
munitions without warning the burgomaster of their commune, who must warn the 
military commandant." 

{Poster reproduced in " Le Bien Public," a newspaper appearing at Ghent under 
the German censorship, issue for December 11th, 1914.) 

NOTICE POSTED UP IN VERVIERS. 

By Order of the German Military Authority. 

"The Commissary of the Arrondissement of Verviers calls the attention of the com- 
munal administrations and of people under his jurisdiction to the following regulations : 

"The severest penalties will be inflicted upon offenders: any one found damaging 
the roads, telephones, or telegraphs will be HANGED. The same penalty will be 
inflicted on any person in whose house are found arms, ammunitions, or explosives. The 
house in which these objects are discovered will be destroyed by fire, and all the men 
encountered on the premises will be HANGED. 

"Severe penalties will be inflicted on any district where damage is done to roads, 
telephones, or telegraphs. 

"For their own safety, the inhabitants of communes are invited to denounce to 
the commandants of ttapes those persons suspected of disobeying the present order or 
of opposing the measures taken. 

"On the other hand, those communes which remain tranquil, and in which this 
order is strictly obeyed, will enjoy the full protection of the German Government. 

"von Rosenberg, 
" Verviers, August 22nd, 1914." " Colonel Commanding the 29th Brigade. 



TRANSLATION. 

NOTICE. 

"i. All the male inhabitants of the commune aged from 18 to 45 years, rich or 
poor, must present themselves to-morrow, Tuesday, morning, October 6th, at 7 o'clock 
in the morning (Belgian time) at the railway booking-office. 

"2. These inhabitants can no longer change their place of residence ; their names 
have been given to the military authorities. 

"Those who do not carry out this order, and try to escape, will be made prisoners 
and will render themselves liable to be shot. The families of offenders will be taken as 
prisoners and their property destroyed. 

"3. English, French, or Russians who are in the locality must be delivered to the 
miUtary authorities. The same applies to Belgians who are deserters from the Army 
or have been prisoners. Offenders will be punished by death. 

"4. Fire-arms of all kinds which are still in the possession of the inhabitants must 
be deposited immediately with the commandant of the railway station. Those who 
are discovered to be still in possession of these arms^ after the publication of this notice, 
will be shot. 

"5. Assemblies for roll-call will be held from time to time. The day and hour will 
be given in advance. 

"6. Umbrellas and sticks are forbidden at the station. Men must not present 
themselves in a state of drunkenness. 
" Mont-St.-Guibert, October 5th, 1914. 

"The Commandant of the Railway Station, "The Burgomaster, 

" Hamich. Sergeant. "E. Wautier." 

59 



PROCLAMATION BY GENERAL VON BESELER TO THE IN- 
HABITANTS OF ANTWERP. THREATENING TO DESTROY THE 
TOWN IN CASE OF RESISTANCE.— OCTOBER ioth, 1914. 




\0N 



ANTWERPEN 



Das d<Hitsclic Ilcor hotriu Eurc Staift ais 
Si^er. keincm Eurer MitlN^er ^\ird ciii 
Leid gcscbciieii, umi Euur FigniUini wird 
geschuni werden wonn Ihr EiH'h jeder 
Feindscligkcil ontlialleL 

Jwk' WidorscUtlM'hki'Jl dagt^cii wrrti 
nach Knegsrecht bestralt und kanii die 
Zersioruiig Eurcr scboncti Siadi ziir Fulgc 
haben. 



DiT Oberfje/eMxMiffer 
de* deulstchcN Bettufeningsheeres. 

voo BESELER 



HJUITJUITS 

d'Anvers 



L'aniMlH' allemaiide enlrt'^iclorieuse 
daiis \otiT xillc.Oii nc Imidt iiial :t auciiii 
de vos nMkil«\<'ii> t4 on iH'S|H.H'lpra vos 
bicns si Aous nr t'Oiiimellcz -aiKtiii acle 
d'lHisliliiev 

Touu- n'Sfcaancp sera piuiio roiifonmv 
iiieiil a IjhIoi Diartiaie el peiil avi»ir pour 
wHis«|UciK-e la ilcslnHthmik' voIj'C IwJlfc 
villc. 



Le CammmulHHk en die/ 
de taiinve umtHjcHnle, 

von BESELER. 



Inwoners 

VAN 

ANTWERPEN 



Jloi duilscfic Ipgcr Ireedt tnve stad bin- 
non ills «vrn* iHnaAi'.~Aaii g<HMi t-iikel van 
u we burgers /ill kwmur gcdiwii en uwe 
goederni /nlU'n ge(H.H'biedigd wordew. 
indicii gij u untboudl van alle vijaiideliik 
heid. 

Mer legenslaud zai geslraJi worden 
\olgeus de wtjIU'u van rfen oorlog en kan 
als gexolg hebben de vcrtrieling \au uwe 
schuune siad. 

Den Opperbecelhebber 
mil fwi Iteleyleger, 

vodBESELEB 



60 



HOW THE GERMANS TREAT AN OPEN TOWN. 

Summons to Surrender, addressed by General von Boehn 
to the Town of Termonde. 

"September 4th, 1914. 
"To THE Commandant and to the Burgomaster of Termonde. 

"The Gennans have captured Termonde. We have surrounded 
the town with siege artillery of the largest calibre. Even now the 
people dare to shoot from the houses on the German troops. The 
town and the fortress are summoned to hoist the white flag imme- 
diately and to cease fighting. If you do not accede to this summons, 
the town will be razed in a quarter of an hour by a very heavy 
bombardment. 

"All the armed forces of Termonde will immediately deposit 
their arms at the Brussels gate, at the south exit of the town. The 
arms of the inhabitants will be deposited at the same time and at 
the same place. 

"The General commanding the 

"German Troops before Termonde, 
"(S.) Von Boehn." 

Termonde was an old dismantled and obsolete fortress. When 
the Germans approached, the little Belgian garrison left the town and 
crossed to the other bank of the Scheldt. The town was systematically 
bttrnt by the Germans during September 4lh, $th and 6th, 1914. 



TRANSLATION. 

inhabitants of the town of ANTWERP: 

"The German Army enters your town victoriously. Your 
fellow-citizens and your goods will not be harmed as long as you 
do not commit any act of hostihty. 

"Any resistance will be punished according to martial law and 
may result in the destruction of your beautiful city. 

"The Commander-in-Chief of the besieging army, 

"von Beseler." 

61 



NOTICE BY THE KOMMANDANTUR AT DEYNZE. ANNOUNCING 

TO THE INHABITANTS THAT THE COMMUNES OF ROULERS 

(ROESLAERS) AND RUMBEKE HAD BEEN FINED 100,000 FRANCS. 

NOVEMBER 2ND, 1914. 




ll 



Te RocsHaore v\\ iv Hiirriheke zljn Diiilsche soldaten door 
burgers aangoratidgeworden. leder dor beide gemeenteii is 
met eene belaslini; \ari 

100,000 FRANKEN 

gesd'afl geworden. 

Ik waarschuw do burgers van Deinze en orngeving zich van 
alle vijandeiijke handc'lingjogons de Ihiifsdx' Iroopon te on(- 
hond(M), daar zij eveneens mel eene 

HOOCS-E GELIDBOETE 

en de STKENCSTE MAATKECELEW tegenover de burgerij 
gestraft zouden wurden. 

HiJzonderlijK berirnier ik dat eike pogilig VB.J1 

spioneering, signaleo geven, enz 



zai geslrall worden. 

In bet belang {U^r inwcMirrs raad ik aan de stad nie( zonder 
nood/akelijkheid te verlalen en zoo weinig niogelijk te reizen, 
aangezicn men gemakkelijk van spioneering verdacht kan 
worden. 

UEiNZE, 2 MOVHJHMR 1914. 

De Kommandantur 

'^—^— ——————— lii^—ii^—i—— I I rmm-ma^tmmmmmmmm^-^ 

S«elJrali. nOCER V A !« C O B T B E II y C* Bciatc. 

With regard to the supposed attacks by civilians, it is important to notice 
the following facts : — 

The memory of the French franc s-tireurs in 1870 was still vivid in Germany ; 
it was still deeply rooted in the whole army, and a theory had been evolved from 
it for military operations in enemy countries. Nurtured on these principles 
even in peace time, the soldiers were always apprehensive of francs-tireurs, and 
imagined their attacks before they occurred. 

Compare M. Van Langenhove's book, " The Growth of a Legend." (Putnam, 
New York and London.) 

'62 



COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY : FINES, DEPORTATION, 

INCENDIARISM. 

Notice posted up in Thielt, Termonde, and in other Communes of Flanders. 

IMPORTANT NOTICE. 

"Alidor Vandamme, inhabitant of Cortemarck, committed 
espionage by making signals to the enemy. Resisting arrest, he 
was killed by a rifle-bullet. 

"The German authority has taken the following measures of 
coercion in consequence of the crime committed by Vandamme : — 

"i. The cure Blancke and the vicaire Barra, responsible for the 
members of their parish, will be deported as prisoners of war to 
Germany. 

"2. The commune of Cortemarck must pay a fine of five 
thousand marks (5,000 M.)." 

{Posted at Thielt, Termonde, etc.) 

Warning posted up in Louvain (1914) by the German Authorities. 

WARNING. 

"The town of Mons has had to pay a contribution of 1,000,000 
francs because a civilian has fired on a German soldier." 

Notice posted up in Arlon (August 13th, 1914). 

PROCLAMATION. 

"Luminous signals have been made to-night between Freylange 
and the lower part of this town ; one of our patrols has been 
attacked ; our telephone wires have been cut. To punish the 
population guilty of these acts of ill-will, I order for to-day at 
3 o'clock the burning of the village of Freylange and the sack of 
100 houses in the west of Arlon. I also condemn the town to 
a war contribution of 100,000 francs, which must be paid over before 
6 p.m., or I shall have the hostages shot. "von der Esch."* 

* Local commandant at Arlon who had established the Kommandantur 
in the Hotel du Nord. 

TRANSLATION. WARNING. 

"At Roeseiaere and at Rumbeke German soldiers were attacked 
bv the citizens. Each of these towns has been fined 
"100,000 FRANCS. 
"I warn the citizens of Deynze and its surroundings to abstain 
from anv hostile acts towards the German troops, as they also will 
be punished with a ^^ HEAVY FINE, 

and the severest measures will be taken against the citizens. 

"I especially remind you that any attempt at spying or the 
giving of signals will be 

"PUNISHED WITH DEATH. 
"In the interest of the inhabitants, I advise them not to 
leave the town except of necessity, and to travel as little as possible, 
as they may easily be suspected of espionage. 
"Deynze, November 2nd, 1914. xhe Commandant." 

63 



NOTICE BY BARON VON LUTTWITZ, MILITARY GOVERNOR OF 

BRUSSELS, CONCERNING THE MOVEMENTS OF MOTOR CARS, 

MOTOR CYCLES, AND BICYCLES, AND THE POSSESSION OF 

CARRIER PIGEONS.— SEPTEMBER 13TH, 191 4. 



iilUHi 



i Der Verkelir von Privalauloroubilon. Molor 
radern und KalirrSdprii ohiK» riiie bi'soiidciT. 
von der Deutschen KnninianihitiUir (nif dr la 
i.oi. G) auszuslellendc Krlaiilmi^kartc >>ird hier- 
nil fijr die Sladi Hi-usM'l und ihn' Vororlc \er- 
boien. 

Eriaubnisscheine werden niir in drin^nden 
Fallen ausgegeben werden 

Zuwiderhandlungen gegen ditse \ eri(i;;itii}; 
werden die Beschlapnidinic der \ulomoliilc 
Motorrader Oder Fahrriidn- /.ur Folgp riah-n 

Bei den ausserhalb Hriissels o|iericn'»den 
deutschen Truppen ist ^ie VerfOjiung gplronou 
worden, dass vom 15. d.M ab mil jcnleii in ihrcm 
flereich betroflenen ZiviiriidhilirT-r gcs<-hov«on 
werden wird.DieseMassregel wurde eriordcrlicli, 
da die Besiirzung von Anl\\erpen nachgcwiesen- 
ermassen dauernd durch Hadlahrer iiber die 
Bewegungen unserer Triippcii unlerrichtel wird. 

S Bezitzer von Iti-ieflanltcn. die dicso nichl 
biszum 15 d M Millags a!»};«'liefiTl halM'n.sowie 
Leute, die durch Signsde o<Ior in ir^nd einer 
andere Weise die deutschen mililirischen Inle- 
resscn zu schfldigen versnclien. werden nach 
dem Kriegsrechi hesinill werden. 

tBrussel. den 13 Scplember J9ti. 

ikr MIIUui'-Gourentenr mii Brussel, 
FrcihetT \0i^ L(jTnWTZ» 



AVIS 



I La cirrnlallon des aulomobilo> p^l^e(•s 
njotooMlcllcs el velas est Inlerdile lam pour l:i 
Mile de Bnivelles qse pour les laubourgN. saul 
a des persoiines munies dun perniis s|)OPial liti 
Comiiiandanl allcmand (ruede la Loi. ('»). 

Ces porinis ne «eront deli^re'* <tiicii fa> 
diirgence 

Toiiif tt-oninivcntion sera pfinio par la sii^ir 
des v<ihirules. 

Lordre fomwl a ('(e donn^ aii\ iroiipcs allo- 
oiandes nporaiit a 1 alfnlour de Bruxellcs dc lirct* 
sur chaipic c>clisU' encSvil. Celle nicsmv s impoS^ 
(>arco qnon a des preHv<»s qne la garnison 
d \n\er> a ele inlornioo coniinneilenienl dos. 
mou>ements de nos troupes pai- 1 inlornocdrairo 
de cvclisles. 



"1. I.PN |K>rsnnnes qiij, apres le 15 sepicnibre, 
<<en)nl en«*orecn possession de pigeons vo\ageurs. 
ainsi que daulres personnes qui. par des sigifaax 
ou n'iin|)orU> quel auire moyeii, essa>eronl do 
nuire a«\ inter^ls niilitaires alleinanils. soi-ont 
jiigees (Faprcs les lois ie la guerre 

Brnxclles. le 13 se|)tehibre 4JM4 



Le Gouvemevr Mililairp Allemand 

de Bruxetles, 

Baron yoN i.UTTWITZ, 



BERICHT 



^ llel verkeer van private auiouiobiden in 
/.onihr hifzonderf loeialing af le k'Nt'ren door 
hei Duitsihe kommandanlNfhap WtKlraat G 
verboden rn de Stad Brussel en de urnli^gende 
gcineoiiten 

Vcrguniiingskaarleii worden enkel iiidringend 
nevid algeleverd 

Owrlreilingen legen dezeverordeniii«\Norden 
inel inbesJagneming der voerloigen geslrall 

Dv DiiilNfbe iroepen die rond Brussel operce- 
ren hebbiMi be\el gekregen van den 15* d. M 
af. te schieien op ieder wie1ri|der in burgers- 
kleeren Deze maalregel moei genoinen worden 
omdal hel bewezen werd dai de bezelting vaii 
\niwerpen godurig door wielrijders omlrenl de 
bewegingen onwr Irocpeii onderricht werd 

2. Bezillers van reisduiven die zlch van deze 
iiiel op 15-rf.M.. s middags. ontdaan hebben als- 
dok zi| die door seinen of op welke andere 
wijze oojk trachten de Duitsche mililaire belan- 
gen te schaden, zuilen volgens de krijgsweiien 
gesiraft worden 



Brussel. den 13' September <9li. 



De VdUaire Gouvemeur mn Brussel, 
Vrlilieer von UJTTWITZ, 



The charge against the cyclists of scouting for the benefit of the garrison at 
Antwerp was occasioned by the great sortie of September 9th, which had just ended. 
This sortie kept large German forces before Antwerp, and thus contributed indirectly 
to the victory of the Marne. 



64 



BELGIUM A PRISON. 

NOTICE POSTED UP IN ANTWERP. 

"Any person who reproduces, without authority, representa- 
tions of destruction caused by the war, or who displays, offers for 
sale, sells, or otherwise distributes, by means of post cards, illus- 
trated reviews, daily newspapers, or other periodicals containing 
such representations, above all of buildings or localities burned or 
devastated by the war, will be punished by a fine not exceeding 
5,000 marks or a term of imprisonment not exceeding one year. 
The type and plates used for the reproduction of such representa- 
tions are further liable to be seized and destroyed. 

"The Imperial Governor, 

"Freiherr von Huene, 
'' Antwerp, December isf, 1914." "General of Infantry. 

{Posted at Antwerp.) 

NOTICE POSTED UP AT HERVE. 

By Order of the German Authority. 

"After 8 p.m. (7 p.m. Belgian) there must be no lights in the 
windows of the houses of the town of Herve. 

"The patrol has orders to fire at every window giving upon the 
street in which^a light is visible. 

"Ad. Cajot, Sheriff. 
"F. de Francques, Judge." 
(Posted at Herve.) 



TRANSLATION. NOTICE 

"i. The use of private motor cars, motor cycles, and bicycles 
is forbidden in the town of Brussels and in its suburbs, except by 
persons furnished with a special permit from the German Commandant 
(6 Rue de la Loi). 

"These permits are only issued in urgent cases. 
"Any infringement of this rule will be punished by seizure of 
the vehicle. 

"Formal orders have been given to the German troops operating 
in the neighbourhood of Brussels to fire at any cyclist in civilian 
clothes. This measure has been imposed because the garrison of 
Antwerp was continually informed by cyclists of the movements 
of our troops. 

"2. Persons who, after September 15th, are found in possession 
of carrier pigeons, as well as persons who by signals or any other 
means endeavour to prejudice German military interests, will be 
tried by martial law. 

"Brussels, September i^th, 1914. 

"The German Military Governor of Brussels, 
"Baron von Luttwitz, 

"Major-General." 
65 



PROCLAMATION BY BARON VON DER GOLTZ, GOVERNOR- 
GENERAL OF OCCUPIED BELGIUM.— SEPTEMBER 25TH, 1914. 



leral-GfliiverDeiiieiit in BeMeii 

Es sind neuerdings in &e- 
nden, die augenblicklich von 
aerkeren deutschen Trup- 
;nabteilungen nicht besetzt 
aren, Ueberfaelle auf Wa- 
inkolonnen, Patrouillen von 
siten der Einwobner eriolgt. 
Icb macbe daraul aufmerk- 
im, dass ein Verzeichniss 
irjenigen Stadte und Ort- 
haften gefiihrt wird,in deren 
mgebung seiche Angriffe er- 
Igt sind, und dass sie ihre 
estrafung zu gewartigen 
iben, sobald deutsche Trup* 
!n in ihrer Naehe voriiber 
ehen. 



Der Cniftiil-Ciiiiiiiiiriir m Hi'lijwu 

Freiherr \uy dkr VA)\JZ, 



II est arrive r6cemment, 
dans les regions qui ne sont 
pas actuellement occupies 
par des troupes allemandes 
plus ou moins fortes, que des 
convois de camions ou des 
patrouilles ont 6t6 attaqu^s, 
par surprise, par les habi- 
tants. 

J'appelle Tattention du pu- 
blic sur le fait qu'un registre 
des villes et communes, dans 
les environs desquelles de 
pareilles attaques ont eu lieu, 
est dresse et qu elles auront a 
s'attendre a leur ch^timent,d^s 
que des troupes allemandes 
passeront k leur proximit6. 



BnuallM. to 3S MplMolMw l»14. 



Lr Gonvrriu'Hr Heiirrul ni Ufli/ii/Hr, 

Uaron vom iiek <;OLtZ. 



GeBeml-Gouvfiriieiiieiit in Belflle 

In den laatsten tijd zijn 
rijtuigafdeelingen en patrouil 
len, in streken die niet door 
sterke duitsche troepenaf 
deelingen bezet zijn, door de 
inwoners overvallen gewor- 
den. 

Ik trek er de aandacht op 
dat eene lijst wordt opgemaakt 
van zulke steden en dorpen, in 
welker nabijheid zulke aan- 
vallen pla; ts gevonden hebben, 
en dat zij hunne bestraffing te 
verwachtcn hebben zoodra 
duitsche troepen in hunne na- 
bijheid zullen voorbijkomen. 

SruiMl, dan 2S September ISlt. 



Ill- Cniiiiniiiir Cnirinnl in Brlgir 

VrijIiiHT vo> DKR GOLTZ. 



It will be noticed that the attacks of which the Governor complains took place 
in non-occupied territory — that is to say, in territory occupied by the Belgian 
Army. 



66 



COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNES FOR 
CRIMES WHICH THEY HAVE NOT COMMITTED. 

OFFICIAL NOTICE. 

" Localities in the neighbourhood of which telegraphic or 

telephonic wires have been destroyed will be subjected to a war 

contribution. It matters little whether the inhabitants are guilty 

or not. This order will be applied from the 20th instant onwards. 

" The Governor-General in Belgium, 

"Baron von der Goltz, 
"Brussels, September 17th, 1914." " General Field-Marshal. 

{Placard printed in German, French, Russian, and Polish, and 
surrounded by a border of the German colours.) 

NOTICE. 

"Any person found damaging a military telephone or telegraph 
will be shot. 

"Any person removing this Notice will also receive the severest 
punishment. If the guilty person is not found, the severest measures 
will be taken against the commune in which the damage has been 
caused or the present Notice removed. 

"The General Commanding the Army Corps." 
[Posted at Dieghem. Copy made October 22nd, 1914.) 

NOTICE. 

"All damage done to the telegraph, telephone, or railway lines 
will be punished by the Military Court. According to the circum- 
stances, the guilty person will be condemned to death. 

"If the guilty person is not seized, the severest measures will 
be taken against the commune in which the damage has been done. 

"The General Government. 
"(Printed by H. A. Heymann, Berlin, S.W.)" 
{Posted at Terviieren. Copy made April i^th, 1915.) 



TRANSLATION. 

PROCLAMATION POSTED UP IN BRUSSELS 
on September 25th, 1914. 

General Government in Belgium. 
"It has happened in districts at present occupied by more or 
less strong bodies of German troops that convoys of wagons and of 
patrols have been attacked by surprise by the inhabitants. 

"I draw the attention of the public to the fact that a 'register' 
is kept of the localities, in the neighbourhood of which such attacks 
have taken place, and' that they may expect their punishment as 
soon as the German troops pass near them. 
"Brussels, September 2^th, 1914. 

"The Governor-General of Belgium, 

"Baron von der Goltz, 

"Field-Marshal." 

67 



NOTICE BY BARON VON DER GOLTZ, GOVERNOR-GENERAL 
OF OCCUPIED BELGIUM.— SEPTEMBER 30TH, 1914. 




Wiederholle I'berfallc auf doiiische 
upj)on iind Anschlaego suil B.ihii-, Tcle- 
iiphen- und Telephoiilinieii (lurrli rad- 
ircnde Zivilislen voranfcisson mich, 
Icr Abacndcning meinor \ orordiiuns 
m 17. Scplenibei" lOU sioiiKliclu' ii) 
?inein BQtehls})CPricho Ifir radlalu^orMlc 
k'ilislen opioille Falirscheiiic init solm'ti- 
p Wipkung tfip nngiillig zii epklaoron 
I'ilpcpsoncn wclcho irol/.doin padlalipcn, 
izon sich dcp Gc(alir aus. \on den dcul- 
[joii Tnippoii besohosscii zu wcrdon. 
IJrgi Ko^cn einen orgpiflcncii Radlaliroi' 
r Vopdaclil eines boai)si('hlii,'fon Ansclda- 
saui Bidinlinicn odep oincs hcahsichiig 
1 Anj^pidsaul dculsclio Triippcii \()P, so 
inl cp slaijdi-o<!hllich rrschosscn. 



nrr Crufriil-Uiuirrriifiii ^»( Itrlgirii 

Fn-ihcrr vo\ \w.\\ i'AWJJ., 



AVIS 



Dos auaques pcilerees conlre dcs ipou jjes 
allemandes oldcs altenlaiscontpe dos \ol('s 
do chcniins de ler ol dos ligiios lologp'a- 
phiqiies ot lolephonkpios pap (k's volociptv 
dislos olvils ino lopci'iil d'anriulop uhis Ios 
popmisdo cipoiilalioii <|iii oiiV «'lo «k'>livpos, 
<Mi \0PHi do moil ,rro!o dii 17 soplom- 
hpo ll)U, a dos onils; ils oossonl Immc 
diatoinoiil<r<>JPo xakibk's. Dos oivils (jui, on 
dopit \\i' ooci, circulont rncopo on volooi- 
po<k\ so\posonl a 00 quo ck-s lPon|M'«< alio- 
mandos liponl sup ou\. 

Si un oNolislo cap*uro «'si siispool 
dun ppojol d'alloiilal conln' <k's lignos 
(k' olioinins do k'P, (k- lok'graphos on 
lok'phono. on (k> linlrnlion d'aKacpior 
dos iponpos alk'niaiKk's, it M>pa lusilk'on 
voplndo hi k>i niarliido 



Bnixellei, la 30 septembre 1914. 



l.r 'itiuni iinii- (Jeiit^-al en Relgiqui; 

Wiwm vo> lii-R (JOLTZ. 




(lopliaalde aanvallen op dirilsche Ipoe- 
poii on op spoopwegon-, lelogpaal- en iclc- 
loonlijnen doop wlolpijdonde bupgers 
govon mij daapioc aanloiding, moi wljzi* 
gins van mljne vepopdening van 17 Sop- 
lenibop 1914, alle pejMnissiokaaplen voop 
wielpijdende bui-geps, die in hel gebied 
ondop niijn bevol nilgogevon zijn gowop- 
don, als nielig le vopkkipon; dil Ipoodl 
onmiddollijk in wopking. Bupgeps wolke. 
(k'sniollogonslaando znllon wielpijden, 
k>opon g<'vaap (ku (k>op diril^rho (poopon 
op lion gosoholon wonll. 

tndion op logon oonon in boohling gc- 
iionion wioli'ijtk'p do vopdenking boslaal 
\aii oonon bo«k»eklen aaiival op spoor 
woglijnon ol opdnilsolio Ipoopon, zai hij 
golusilloCnl woi'den. 



Ik Goiireniiiir GcminnI in Belgii. 
\lijlHHM\O.N DKR GOLTZ, 



Note that, according to this notice, a civilian only suspected oj 
at destruction" is to be shot. 



an attempt 



68 



THE CIVIL POPULATION MADE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE 
OPERATIONS OF THE ARMY. 

NOTICE POSTED UP IN FOREST. 

General Government in Belgium. 

To the People of Forest. 

"Despite my repeated warnings, attacks have again been made during 
the last few days by the civil population of the neighbourhood against 
German troops,- and also upon the railway between Brussels and Mons. 

"By the order of the MiUtary Governor-General of Brussels, each locality 
must consequently provide hostages. 

' ' Thus, at Forest the following are arrested : — 

"(i) M, Vanderkindere, Communal Councillor, 
"(2) M. le cure Fran9ois. 
"I proclaim that these hostages will immediately be shot without previous 
judicial formalities if any attack occurs upon the part of the population upon 
our troops or the railway lines occupied by us, and that, moreover, the most 
severe reprisals will be carried out against the commune of Forest. 

' ' I request the population to keep calm and to refrain from all violence ; 
in which case it will not suffer the slightest harm. 

"The Commandant of the Landsturm, 
" Halberstadt Battalion, 
"Forest, September 26th, 1914." ' "von Lessel. 

What Really Happened, and who were the Authors of the 
Attacks on the Railway. 

"The railway lines of the country afforded the enemy great facilities 
for revictualhng and transporting troops. The Belgian High Command 
decided to hamper these faciUties. They ordered the formation of seven 
detachments, each composed of 100 volunteer cyclists, in order to destroy the 
railway communications in the region occupied by the enemy. 

"On September 22nd* these groups left Antwerp, each of them directed 
to a special area of operations. Most of them succeeded in getting through 
the German /iwes,. reached the points agreed upon, and cut the most important 
railway lines in Limburg, Brabant, Hainault, causing considerable havoc 
with the enemy transport. 

"The greater part of these detachments succeeded in joining the Belgian 
Army again; some of them, accidentally getting into touch with German 
troops, were surrounded or surprised." 

{U action de I'armee beige. Official Report of the Belgian Army Command, p. 44. 
Paris : Chapelot, 1915.) 



TRANSLATION. 

NOTICE. 

"Constant attacks on German troops and attempts to destroy railways, 
telegraph and telephone wires by civilian cyclists, oblige me to cancel all 
permits for the use of cycles issued according to my order of September 17th, 
1914. 

"They are now no longer valid. Civilians who, in spite of this order, 
go about on bicycles are liable to be shot at by German troops. 

"If a captured cyclist is suspected of an attempt to destroy railways, 
telephone or telegraph wires, or of an attack against German troops, he will 
be shot according to martial law. 
*' Brussels, September 30th, 1914. 

"The Governor-General in Belgium, 

"Baron von der Goltz, 

"Field-Marshal." 

* Compare this date with that of the German posters. 

69 



NOTICE BY THE GERMAN MILITARY ADMINISTRATION AT 

MONS, ORDERING THE INHABITANTS TO REPORT ANY BRITISH 

SUBJECT LIVING WITH THEM.— NOVEMBER i6th, 1914. 



ADMINI STRATION DE LA VILLE DE MONS 

AVIS IMPORTANT 

I/Administration militaire allemande 
ordonne a rAdministration coiriTnunale 
d'arreter et d'envoyer a la Commandature 
tous les sujets anglais ^ges de 17 a 55 ans, 
qui se tronvent sur le territoire de la Ville 
ou qui y arriveraient. 

La Ville de Mens devra payer une contri- 
buiion de Guerre pour tout Anglais qui serait 
trouv6 apr^s le 21 courant. 

Les habitants sont done tenus d'avoir a 

declarer a la police, dans les 48 heures, tout 

sujet anglais qui se tiendrait jdans leur 

demeure. 

Les Gontrevenants.^ cet ordre seraient 
personnellement responsables du paiement de 
la contribution dent la Ville pourrait dtre 
frapp^e par leur faute. 

it'll,: Ir in Suamhit 1914 

Jean LESCARTS 
von GLADISS 



Imp. prov. du Huinaut Lc'oii LAMBERT, rue de Houdain, 12. Mons 

70 



APPEALS TO INFORMERS. 
I. 

Notice posted up in Namur, x\ugust 25TH, 1914. 

"Belgian and French soldiers must be delivered up as 
prisoners of war before 4 o'clock in front of the prison. Citizens who 
do not obey will be condemned to hard labour for life in Germany. 

"A rigorous inspection of houses will commence at 4 o'clock. 
Every soldier found will be immediately shot." 
(Extract from the 6th Report of the Belgian Commission of Inquiry.) 

11. 

"A notice posted up at Chatelet and signed by the Commandant 
of the troops, Freiherr von Maltzahn, ordered 'every inhabitant 
who had in his house a Belgian or French soldier, wounded or not, 
to make a declaration of the fact at the Hotel de Ville.' In default 
of which he ran the risk of being hanged and his house burnt down." 
{Extract from the 22nd Report of the Belgian Commission of Inquiry,) 

III. 

In November, 1916, the Military Governor of Namur, Baron 
von Hirschberg, published the following decree : — 

"All the inhabitants of the province having relatives who are 
members of the Belgian Army and prisoners in Germany, may 
alleviate their sufferings by sending a request to the Minister for 
War in Berlin, on condition that they prove themselves able and 
willing by their actions to serve the German cause." 



TRANSLATION. 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE TOWN OF MONS. 

IMPORTANT NOTICE. 

"The German military administration orders the communal 
authorities to arrest and send to the Kommandantur all English 
subjects from 17 to 55 years of age found within the urban district 
of Mons. 

"The town of Mons will have to pay a fine for any Englishman 
found there after the 21st instant. 

"The inhabitants are therefore obliged to inform the police 
within 24 hours of the presence of any Englishman in their houses. 

"Anyone infringing this order will be held personally responsible 
for the pavment of the fine which v.ill be laid on the town by their 
fault. 

"Mons, November i6th, 1914. 

"In agreement, "The Burgomaster, 

"The Military Governor, "Jean Lescarts. 

"von Gladiss." 

71 



NOTICE BY BARON VON DER GOLTZ, FORBIDDING BELGIANS 

OF MILITARY AGE TO REJOIN THE ARMY. AND HOLDING THEIR 

FAMILIES RESPONSIBLE IF THEY ESCAPE. 

OCTOBER 7TH, 1914. 




Mr lM«l}<is<lii' IU'};htuii.h liai in dnii xiii 
iIsi4m'ii Tni|HM«ii Im«n'I/.|<'h {',vUh'\ 
'hi'pPivhliijvH v\\\\»v\' jiiii«;rirr J.ilir- 
1^' (irsJi'lhiiij^slM'h'lilr /ii};<'lini l.issj'ii. 
SI' liH<;is(lM>ii WUW siiitl fttif/ultif/. la 
II ion (Iculsclirn Tiii|i|N'n lH>M*i/lcn 
I ills Limit's };rll('n liir .lilc IjiiWoImmt 
p dio lU'lolili* «l<s k.iisirlirli Ihiilsilion 
iicniK^oiMrninncnls \m\ dir ilini 
IciMclilcn Itclionli'ii. 
Us >>inl tU'u l-;in|»tan;;n'n iMi^isciirr 
sl<'lliiii^'siM>l<*lilr iiin-inil luisdnnljich 
•iHtlt'H, ili<*s«'n rol;,'r zn li'lslcn. 
\\Vlii|»ni(-iili^4' ilnrli'ii krinllj<; dcii Itc- 
cli ilin>s .■iu};nil>licklirlini Anlnitlplis- 
4^ (Sl.'idl 4Hl<r i«'iii(lj;nii<intln olinr 
iiHiiiM^^iiii}; (l(T ilriilsciim Hrlirti-dr nubl 
lir \ni:iss(>n.\\idi'iKnil:ills tine liiniilit' 
IiIkii' !;nn:i<-lil wird. ' 
tni l(<*silrHiH's(;('s|('llini!j>lN'lrlils «Hh>r 
irr Ki'kniiiunj;sin.-irkr ^rirodiMir Wrlii - 
idili^i' >v<Td('n als hrHifsffr/aiHfnH- 



/*•#• Untfral-lHMirrumr <n tlrlqit-H. 

Fn-ilM-rr \h\ mh <;oi;i7.. 



AVIS 



hails la parlic dh |»a\s iN-ni|H*(> |iar Ics 
li'oii)N-s .illcniaiidi's. |i* (•oii\cfiii'ni4'iil 
In'I^c a iail panniii' aii\ iniliri4'n> dr 
fitHsivHrs r/nssr.s di^ ui'drt'sdi'i'rjniinlrr. 
(rs onli<'s lM'lt;rs //<• soni jmis rnhihlrs: 
II u'\ a que Ics oi'drrs dn (ionxmir- 
iiK'iil i;cnn'al idlriiiaiid ci drs aiilorilrs 
liii soiivoi-doiin«>rs«|Mi soul \alal)lcs dan<« 
la dilr pai-lirdn paN^. ' 

II rs| slrirli-nii'iil (tr/nnlif a |4M|s rrii\ 
<|ni n'«oi\rnl rrs «ndir> helm's d'> 
doiniri'vuilc. 

\ l.ucnir. Irs niilirirns nr d«'\ionl 
plus (piilUi- Iciir lini arhirl tU' irsidriMc 
|\dlc nil niiHiniiltn s.iiis \ rlir spni.ili'- 
innil aiilorisrs p.ir r\diiiiiiisli'.ilion .illc- 
niaiidr 

I Ml las )!«' null 1:1 > rill ion. iu /iniiUlr 
dii niiliririi sna ri-alminil iriiiH- rrspon- 
salih'. 

I,rs nidii'inis sr Iroinaiil rn possession 
dim ordi'c de rrioiiidrroii d'liiir iiii'dailh' 
dr la nialrindr. srroiil Iraili's roiiHiir 
Itrisaififirrs dr fiitrrrr. 



7 oclobr.. I»I4 



1 1- 1,1,111 11 III III l.riiiiiil III lliliiii,iii: 

HsiriMi \o> III It (.01.17. 



KENNISGEVING 



l>r iM'ljjisrhr Ke.ui'i'liii;' lin-li in liel j;i«- 
l>it'iUlooi-di'dnilsrlir lioi'|M'ii lu'/cl ;ifiii 
inTr/i/irlitifffii \.iu rrni^r joiip-n' jaar- 

•;aiii;rii ImmIiii ini oproipin^ |,iirn I 

koiiirii. jlr/r lirl^isrlii' hc'.rli'ii/ijn »////«'/ 
/////. Ill Ih'I door diiilsilif IriH-pni lir/rlli' 
urdnllr \aii liil land /.ijii \ooi- allr iiiXMi 
iM'i's iiilsliiiirlijk drht'xcli'ii \an lirl Kri- 
/nlijk Diiilsili finii'iaal-lioiixriiii'iiii'iil 
III dr lirjtt oiid(>rui>/r;ii'o\crli«'di'n};i*ldi;;. 

Ilirniirdr woidl aaii droiihan^i'sdrr 
iMJ^iiMlH' iMxrIni lot o|>i-o(*|»in}; iiti/trti/;- 
livhjli rcrlnMli'ii aan dr/.ni ^«'\ol.u \v 
i;r\rii. 

WiTrptiidili^'n nio^'ii in I xcrxol;* lirl 
iHTi'ik IniiiiM'i' U'^'iiwoordi;;!' xnldijl- 

IilaalsiMi (slad of }j;nnn'nh' y.oiidn- pwd- 
kt'iiriii;; dcr dniisriii' oxcrlirid iii<rin«'rr 
\rilalrii. aiidri's /;\\ hii/iiir famtht' \vr- 
anlwoordrlijk ^rniaakl wonlcn. 

\\rriplirlili<;i'n. dir in lirl Im'/jI /iillni 
i;i'\oiidrii wordni \an rni Im'Xi-I loi opror- 
piii;;ol xan n'n<'n-k('iiiiiii;;snii'daillir. xxor- 
di'ii als /.nJusffvniiifinfi'H iN'liandi'Id. 



Sruuel. •!<>• 7 OclolMr l»U. 



Ih- 1,1 

Xrijlinr \o^ mil i;oi;i/. 



72 



PATRIOTISM OF FAMILIES PUNISHED AS A CRIME. 

German Communiques inserted by order in ** L'Ami de l*Ordre,'* 
a Belgian paper published at Namur under German Censorship, 

I. 
Military Tribunal. 

"The Belgian soldiers, Jules Hambursin and Emile Thibaut, having lost {sic) the 
garrison of Namur, returned, after the taking of Namur, to their own home at Auvelais, 
where they were hidden by their relatives, except for a time when, according to their 
own account, they ^were traveUing about, trying to rejoin the Belgian Army. 

"For having assisted them, the following persons have been condemned, under the 
proclamation of September 19th, 19 14, first by the ratified sentence of the camp 
tribunal (May 21st, 1915) and secondly by order of the Government (May 20th, 1015) ; 
Fran9ois Hambursin, father of Jules Hambursin, to 3 months' imprisonment ; Marie 
Lorand, wife of Jules Hambursin, to 2 months' imprisonment ; Barbe Cabossart, mother 
of Em. Thibaut, to 4 months' imprisonment ; OHv. and Felic. Thibaut, brothers of Emile 
Thibaut, to 4 and 2 months' imprisonment respectively; and Modeste Hambursin, 
brother of Jules Hambursin, and brother-in-law of. Emile Thibaut, to 3 months' 
imprisonment." {"fAmi de I'Ordre," June 9th and 10th, 1915.) 

II. 

"According to paragraph 18 § 2 of the Imperial Order of December 28th, 1899, 
dealing with the conduct of war against foreigners, the undermentioned Belgian subjects 
were punished by the tribunal of Namur, May 15th last, with 2 months' imprisonment : 
" I, The wife of Joseph Salingros, nee Ang^le Anciaux, at Auvelais ; 
"2. The miner, Justin Salingros, and 
"3. His wife, Rosalie, nee Allars, both at Araimont. 
"This punishment was inflicted on them because they failed to report the, presence 
of the Belgian soldier Joseph Salingros, which they knew of, in contravention of the 
proclamation of September, 1914." 

{"L'A?ni de I'Ordre," May 19th and 20th, 1916.) 

Extract from the " Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant," a Dutch 
paper allowed by the Germans to circulate in Belgium. 

"At Hasselt and in the neighbourhood, the Germans have arrested the fathers of 
young men who, liable to be called to the colours, had succeeded, in spite of strict 
prohibition and active supervision, in crossing into Holland in order to go to France 
(via England) with the intention of enrolling themselves in the army. 

"However, when it was known that some of the fathers had been arrested, the others 
also crossed the frontier. . . . The Germans did not stop there ; the mothers were 
arrested in their place. 

"At the same time, the Germans made it known that all these people would be 
transferred to the well-known camp at Miinster, and gave notice that the women must 
provide themselves with as much body linen as possible. The little town was plunged 
into consternation. Later, a telegram arrived from General von Bissing announcing that 
the departure for Miinster was postponed for a week, and the prisoners were taken to 
Tongres." 

{"Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant," February 3rd, 1915. Evening edition.) 



TRANSLATION. NOTICE 

"In the part of the country occupied by German troops, the Belgian Government 
has issued to Belgians of military age orders that certain groups are to join the colours. 
These Belgian orders are not valid. Only the orders of the German General Government, 
and the authorities named by it, are valid in the said part of the country. 
"Those who receive Belgian orders are strictly forbidden to obey them. 
"In future, men of mihtary age must not leave their present place of residence' (town 
or commune) without a special permit from the German Administration. 

"In case of disobedience, the family of the man will be held responsible. 
"Men of military age found in possession of an order to rejoin or of an identity disc 
will be treated as prisoners of war. 

"Brussels, October jth, 1914. "Governor-General in Belgium, 

"Baron von der Goltz, 

"Field -Marshal," 

73 



NOTICE BY BARON VON BISSING, CONCERNING THE DANGERS 
TO WHICH BELGIANS OF MILITARY AGE ARE EXPOSED IF 
THEY ATTEMPT TO CROSS THE FRONTIER, AND STATING THE 
PENALTIES TO WHICH THEIR FAMILIES WILL BE SUBJECT. 
JANUARY 26th, 1915. 




I 




ler Z«ii hJiNn wiederholc wchrfiliigrPu'sonen >ersuchl. 
(lie holts nrttfchf Crenie zii Oheisckrdlen. um in its, 
> Hwr ein)!irtnH*'n. 
slifnm* (lahw fotgemlw • 

e Wrgilnsligimgen, di« im Cienaomnvcfkehr nich 
pllrn. «enlin ffir »( hrfahige Brtgicr aufKehoben 
per. die \prhi.).<i«i(lrig die Crenze nach Holland zu uber- 
versiiehon. o^lten <rh der Gclahr aiis. \(>n den Gienz- 
>cho5s«i zu nerden. Welirfahljse wprdin im Falle der 
Wbeslraa unJ als Kiieg^erangene nach l>eiiljrhland 
t. 

T den verbonwidrigen I'eberlrill eiiies wrhrShigen 
naeh Holland liefdrdert oder begOnsliijt. *ird nach den 
setien behandi-ll Hies gill aurh fur die FainilienangebO- 
i Wehrfihigen. die den L'ebertrill nichi verhinderii. 
i Wehrfahige im Sinne dieser Verordnung gelien alle 
ten Belgier im Aller vom volleodeieo IS. bu 40 Lebens- 



erMile, «on«rh Belgier in das deutsche Heer 
sollen. beniben atil bdswilliger Erfiadun^ 



4m » Jmtr IBU 



Freiberr von BISSIN 



BMm. 

ING. 



■mm 



km 



In dea laaisten tQd hebben d[k«|]l> wMrbtre peraoonen 
getracht heimeUjk de, hollandsche grens te overNChrijden, om 
zich bg het vijandelgke leger le vervoegea 

Ik verorden daarom h«t Tolgeade . 

4. Alle guiislen, die in het verkeer op de grens naar Holland 
loegesiaan qjo, worden voor weerbw* Belgen geschorsl. 

i De Kelgen, die legen bel verbod trachten de grens naar 
Holland le overschrgden, stellen zich bloot iian hel |;evaar door 
de grensposlen doodgescliolen te worden. Zy worden indien zy 
gegrepcn worden. gestrafl eo als krugsgevangenen naar Duiisrh- 
land gevoerl 

3. Wie de verbodea 0Ter«rhrgding der grens naar Hollamt 
eens werrbaren Belgen vorderd of begunstigd. wonll \olgen> ile 
oorlogswetlen behandeld. Oil geldt ook voor de familieleden 
van den weerbaren Beig, die dezeo niel hindereo loi ziiike 
gf ensoverschrgding. 

4. In den tin deier verordening gelden als weerbare per- 
soooen alle nMonelgke Belgen In den ouderdom van het ver- 
loopeo 16* tot 40* leveosjaar 

Alle geruchleii, volgens weike Belgen in hel duitsche leger 
loaden worden ingelgid, benislen op kwaadwillige uilvioding. 



Vrijheer von BISSING, 



!■ I III a«^tM»Jhr «- 



AVIS 



Os lemps tJirnier* de<i perxmin-s, aptck an tervire 
mililairc. oiil «isiiv^ a iliflorenies riiirKi^, d*- in«ersrr 
secrelemenl la fronlierc hollandaisv |><iiir rrjuindrr lartnec 
ennemie 

Par consequent, |e decide ce qui kiiii 

I. Toules les (a»ours, en vigiieur pour la nrriiUimn d«ii. 
les zones limitrnphes a la frnnli*re soni tiippriince> poiir Un 
Beiges, aploi an service mililatre. 

• 1. Les Beiges qui essaienl. in.ilgre In ilrrii>.r. ile fmnrhir !.■< 
fronliere vers la Hollande ■iexpiwi'iil .iii danger drirr iiir> 
par les senliiielles a la Iroiiliere. Les Beljes. ap|.-s an <.^r»ir<> 
mililaire, captures dans ces rondllion<i. <rmnt pnm* r« ^ii»o»r« 
en Alleinagne cooime prisonnicrs ile guiire 

J. Quicoiique aidera on f.norisora le pasjui;;^ ilnfcniln en 
Hollande dun Beige, aple an service mililairc Mta irailc 
coiilormcinent aux lois de la guerre. 

Ceci s'appliqiic egalemenl aux membres d' la famille iln 
Beige, aple au service militairr prccile. qui n'emperlMnl pa> 
celui-ci de se ren<tre en Hollande 

4. Soni consideres cumnie aple:< an service mi4ilaire daii< le 
sens de eel arr*l*. lous les Beiges du sexe ina.sculin. ilgi-s lU 
16 ■ 40 ans revolus. 

Tous les bruils d'apres lesquels de* Beiges seraieni inror 
pore* daoa rarmee allenuode ne toot que dea inventions 



Bnullr*. b » jiamr I9t» 



Lt Gt mv rr n em - Gttirmt en Btlgi^, 

Baroo voN BISSING. 



-V. I W«»i«»t-«i 



74 



BELGIAN PATRIOTISM DOES NOT FEAR DEATH. 

Notice by General von Huene. 
NOTICE. 

"A party composed of about a hundred civilians, of whom some were 
armed, attempted, on December 6th, 1916, to pass the frontier by force in 
order to reach Dutch territory.* 

"Of 37 persons who were arrested, the council of war attached to the 
military government of Liege has condemned 30 to death ; four, who were 
under 18 years of age and who were not armed, are condemned to 15 years' 
imprisonment ; the three others are condemned to lighter punishments 
because it was not proved that they knew what means were to be adopted 
for crossing the frontier. 

' ' Taking into account the fact that those who took part in this attempt 
had been over-persuaded and that they had not realised the gravity of their 
crime, I have commuted the death penalty to that of forced labour for life. 
If such a case occurs again, I shall not make use of my right of pardon. 

"The Deputy Governor-General of Belgium, 
"Brussels, December 31sl, 1916." "Baron von Huene. 

A PATRIOTIC PRIEST. 

"A Jesuit father, of the name of Vermeulen, also played a certain part, 
taking up an attitude which was really incredibly provocative. 

"He sat, with folded arms, in front of the military court and declared 
that the German Government was here by brute force only, and could not 
therefore claim the authority of any legal instrument ; for which declaration 
he very naturally found himself punished with a fine, as having made a 
disturbance at a public sitting. He defended his point of view, and stated 
that he had not only the right of encouraging recruiting, but that he ought to 
be allowed to do whatever might seem to him patriotic. It was for this 
reason that he sent the famous little lettres du soldat (soldier's letters), and 
he also employed the confessional to induce his penitents to enlist." 

{Minutes of an action at Brussels appearing in the " Vossische Zeitung," No. 18, 
January 11th, 1916, under the title of "Stories of Belgian Espionage.") 



TRANSLATION. 

NOTICE. 

"Lately some persons of military age have several times attempted to 
cross the frontier secretly into Holland, in order to join the enemy army. 

"Consequently, I decree the following: — 

" I . The permission to move about in the restricted areas near the 
frontier will not apply to Belgians of military age. 

"2. Belgians who attempt, in spite of the prohibition, to cross the 
frontier into Holland expose themselves to the danger of being killed by the 
sentries on the frontier. Belgians of mihtary age captured in this attempt 
will be sent to Germany as prisoners of war. 

"3. Whoever favours or assists the prohibited transit of a Belgian of 
military age will be tried by martial law. This also applies to the families 
of any Belgians who fail to prevent him from crossing to Holland. 

"4. All male Belgians between 16 and 40 are deemed to be of military 
age for purposes of this order. 

"All reports of Belgians being enrolled in the German Army are to be 
regarded as mischievous inventions. 
"Brussels, January 26th, 1915. 

"The Governor-General in Belgium, 

"Baron von Bissing, 

' ' Colonel-General. ' ' 

* With the intention of joining the Belgian Army. 

75 



NOTICE BY THE GERMAN GOVERNOR OF BRUSSELS CON- 
CERNING THE COMPULSORY REGISTRATION OF BELGIANS OF 
MILITARY AGE.— APRIL, 1915. 




loe BelQier. 



IS den seilens der Geineindeii Clro^s- 
,se\i cingereivhleii l-iklen gehl her\OP, 
sich cine Aniiihl meldepdichtiger Relgier 
he in den Jahien l893-lSn7 gelwreo 
Ml fiross-Drussel iinsAssig sind.noch iiichi 
ler Ixiile niilitiiire |Mrsonlicli angenipldel 
n. 

;ii|i'iii>:«:ii.\tclrhc dicM* \nnieldnni; bishcr 
tiiinl liai»en win! riitc U-lzlv FrisI zur 
i-liliiMg gewiilirl ; dicv^ben hnl>en Mch 
I.. 1'^. I.t iinil 1(1 4pril \un 9-12 Oder 
lilir (Ucutschc 7^i() aufdrr Erole niilitaire 
ustcllen 
«T diesv Meldiiiig iintrrlawl, win! bc- 



ilU rtiHitepflirliltce I'ersoiicnliross-Brristrl 
tiisliriicli des Krieues v« rliissen iiiilH>n, 
the 4n\«!r\*niidlcn re$p Veimieler ver- 
lili-l <ltii V< rlilrih AeficUtvti denri lleiit- 
II ^ililrnnil Gross- llriissvl ine dii Heri- 
Hl b<'i VrriiifKliiiic von Sdale l>i$ iiiiii 
%|iril tU •! iiiiliiilrilen. 



1 



BEKENDMUKIIIG 



Meldepllcltip Selgeii. 



I ii ill' \<i..r:;tUplr lijsU'M dvp jccmocnU'n van 
GriH>»-Briiss(-l hiijkl dal ovii nnnlnl niolde- 
piicliligr B«*Iki'ii die Ml do |iirrii lh92-IS97 
grbort'U I'n in (•ronl-RrusscI Kt-liiMwrsi ii|n, 
xioli nog nifl prrMxtiilijk lit-hbcn Mnngrnicld in 
d<- Kri|);sM liooi 

Dcngcnrn die lot nii Im wnitinid liciilifn 
zich aan Ic iiH'id«-n. uordi t>vn laaUlc uiUtcl 
f[;cKC\cn; zi) mod on licli op H. 12, 13 en 
1« ipril \iin 0-(i2 of miii 3-6 iiur (Duilsche 
Upl). HI d<- krii^M'liiiid uanbioden 

\Vi«' nnliiiil tirh aan Iv birdrn zai k*"*!"!!! 



Indicn mcldepiirhlip- pcrsoiu-n nii del iiil- 
brrkrn van den oorlo^; (irool-ltrnssol \orlHlcn 
bfblirn. ujn dc (aniiliHo«lrn r«\p. \4-rliiiiir- 
ders »i'rpli«-hl. deicr vrrblijrplAals nan hH 
lluil\4-h innnicldinxsbiirrfl t iiii (urool-llriisv*!. 
niddncliinslriiut. 10. I«>n Innfstt- op lit \pril 
b«-k<'nd l«* MitilCirii '#,i| dii' «lil «<TtniiiH-n W 
tUti'H. tulb'ii Kcolriin uordon. 



Oer km m M. 



m QFFieiEL 

conceriiiiit les Beles 
QUI doiiit se lie m. 



irrrsiillf drs lisii-s r4-niisrs|MirlosronnHunr« 
dc l'u^};lunM*riiliiiii linixt'lloisi ip^in roriain 
noiiibrt* dr Relies umiiiI I uliliKiilion dr h«- Tairr 
insrnri-. iit-s dr IStt2 ii iNi)7 i-l habitant 
I'aKKlunieralinn. no !»c soni |«s pnS^nlr> pci^ 
xdiiH-llrnirnt h rK4>ol«' niililain* 

II est aoosnltt ua Ut^oicrdelai A crui qui ne 
«e sonI pas encore fail inscrire (usqu'A pK*!«rnt) 
eeu&-ci devronl se'presenter A i'Ecok'nilitairc 
IcN H 12. 13 rl 16 nvril i\r 9 a midi ou de S 
A 6 hciires (heun* alleniaiule). 

Tout qui neglif^era de se fidre iawrire, wrs 
puni 

<)iiMnl Mix Delgoft qui. de vant sc faire iaaerire, 
a\aionl quille ra^ionieralionbruselloMe epr^ 
\r debut de bt ytuPnT, leurs pi-re, mere •• 
aHlre« paH'nlh ou k-.s p«<rv>nne% dont ibt rtjural 
b-s liM-alnin<9> out robbKiilioii dc 
I'lidresM' dcres Il4-li;<"> joMpi nii 16 atril 
ebaiii an biirenn d'liiM iiplioit iilb*i 
M-bes Mebb-niiit). lO. me du NeridM^o. Iat*. 
.eoiiiei-\enniilH sevpoNeiil n elre pnnu. 



OerGoiimfwBmsstl 



Note the appeal to turn informer in the last paragraph. 



76 



THE REPLY OF THE YOUNG BELGIANS. 

Here are some cases reported during December, 191 6, whose 
authenticity is proved by the mention of them in the pubUcation 
of the sentences pronounced by the German mihtary tribunals. 

"Dr. Michiels, of Montaigu (Brabant), has just been condemned by the 
Germans to 4 years' imprisonment and to a fine of 7,000 marks for having 
helped some Belgians to reach the Dutch frontier." 

"Madame Andringa, wife of Major-General Andringa, Belgian military 
Governor of West Flanders (unoccupied Belgium), has just been condemned 
by a German Council of War to 8 months' imprisonment. Mme. Andringa 
was found guilty of having helped some young Belgians to cross the frontier 
in order to join the Belgian Army," 

' ' The town of Maeseyck has been punished because some young men got 
across the frontier. All the cafes, shops, and private houses are to be shut 
before 7 p.m." 

{Communiques of the "Bureau docunientaire beige.") 

"On the Dutch-Belgian frontier the control exercised by the Germans 
has lately become stricter than ever. No passport is available for travel in 
the frontier zone. The public is warned that anyone found at night in the 
prohibited zone will be fired upon without warning. 

"In order to facilitate the watch, the military authorities have had 
destroyed in a wide strip of land all objects which might give cover. Trees, 
bushes, buildings, private houses, have disappeared. 

"A young man from Ecloo, who tried to rejoin the Belgian Army, was 
shot by a German sentry," 

[Communication of the " Bureau documentaire beige," October 26th, 1916.) 



TRANSLATION. 

OFFICIAL NOTICE. 
Belgians Liable to Registration, 

"It appears from the lists handed in by the communes of Greater Brussels 
that a number of Belgians liable to registration, born between 1892 and 1897, 
and living in Greater Brussels, have not been in person to the Ecole Militaire. 

' ' A last chance is given to those who up to the present have not registered. 
They must come in person to the Ecole Militaire on the 8th, 12th, 13th, or 16th 
of April between 9 and 12 a.m. or 3 and 6 p.m. (German time). 

"All who fail to register will be punished. 

"As for those Belgians who, though obliged to register, left Greater 
Brussels after the outbreak of war, their fathers, mothers, or other relatives, 
or the persons with whom they lodged are under the obligation to communicate 
the present addresses of these Belgians to the registration office (Deutsches 
Meldeamt, 10 rue du Meridien) before April i6th. Those faihng to do so will 
be punished. 

"The Governor of Brussels." 

77 



NOTICE BY LIEUTENANT-COLONEL BLEYHOFFER TO THE 

INHABITANTS OF SAINT-TROND, CONCERNING THE FORCED 

PRICE OF THE MARK.— SEPTEMBER 6th, 1914. 



KiilidlG 



Der Z\vangskui*s < Mark deutscher 
lehniii}; isl i;leicli 1 frank HO cen- 
les lHjl.nls<*her waehwing. 
Ks isl mlp zii olii'en Kekommen. 
« liiesi};e Ooschaeflc (uer \ Mai'k 
r { fi ;mk gcben. Solllo inir j^onicl- 
»(T4lon, liass frrnorhin I Mark 
hi gl<>i<'li I frank .^0 <'<Mitiim>s 
•ci'hnrl xsird, so \\orde icli die I>c- 
(TtMidon Geschaofu* soforl sehlies- 
I lasscn und die Inhaber zur \ep- 
\^orlimg Ziehen. 

Gei Bhyhoffo}' 

DberHtlfutiiani urul Konimandtnt 
llTnnd. 6 September 1914 



AVIS 



Le coniN force dii M.irk n. liable 
<>ii Alleinagni' esl eqiiiv.ileni a 
1 fr. 30 cetnimos xalem* |{<'li;o.~ 

II III esl |)ar>enii que des inaisoiis 
de eominerce ne donncnl <|ur / fr 
poui' I Mark. 

Si I esl |)orl(^ a ma eounnissiiice 
que (lor(^na\anl un Mark n'est |)as 
coni|)l(^ \ fr. 30 cenliiues, je fei'ai 
imm^ialemenl fermer ees niagasins 
el en rendrai pesponsables ieui-s 
oceupants. 

signe Bleyhdffer 

Uculeaut-CokMei et CoaBuodanl 



SiTrimi,k9i 



^1014 




De dwangkoers van de Ihiilsche 
\>aarde 1 Mark siaal gelijk mel 
i fr 30 ceniiemen Belgisclie 
waarde. 

Hel is ons ler norm gekoinen daf 
connnerclehni/en van de slad niaar 
/ fr geven vooi" \ Mark. 

Mocsl ik vernemen dal in het ver- 
volg \ Mark niel gerekend wordi 
aan I fr. TiO ceniiemen, xal ik onniid- 
dellijk zuike ntaga/ijnen lalen shiilen 
en (le hewonei-s lol veranlwoording 
dagen. 

r.ri Bloijlioffor 

Luilrniinl-KolonrI rn Kommandanl 
St-Tiuiden, den 6 SeptemUi 1914 



ORDER BY BARON VON DER GOLTZ, GOVERNOR-GENERAL IN 
BELGIUM, ON THE FORCED PRICE OF THE MARK. 



Uqu] 



ls(li(>s<;Hdntiissindenokkiipierten 
tpn Belgiciis in Xalilniig geiiomiiicn 
n. m\\m 1 MARK his aid 
IS mil iirimiesinis 1-25 Frano 

It'iUH'll isl. 



ftr Gtntrml-GoHvernruT m Btlfitn, 

Freiherr vo> iitR GOLTZ. 

HiriirilTiHa till 



OCTOBER 3RD, 1914. 

mm 



La moiiriaie alleiiiande (es|M>('('s el 
papier- monnale) doil rtre arrcpitV en 
imyeiiKiil dans W icrriloin' I.N'Ige <k:( iipr, 
et ce ius(|uVi noiivcl ordrr, sur ' \» 
bascde:! MARK \alan( au nioins 
Iranc 1-25. 



I* « odebra 1«U. 



Ikiroii vo.N KUk GOLTZ. 




DuilM-hgeld nuH'l indrhc/.HIc siri'krn 
van hclgir in IM-Salinj; };•'••<►"•'<'» ^^<»•••'«'» 
\>aarl)ij, lol riadrr ordrr. 1 MARK 
iiK'i ini ininsir Frank 1-25 '»"»<'' 
iMToknid wordj'ii. 



, da » OclobOT I 



/*• UoiH-fnifur Kmrraal m 0rl$iit 

Vrijiict't- v«» i>KH (.OLtZ. 



78 



TRANSLATION. 

NOTICE. 

"The forced price of the mark current in Germany is equivalent 
to I franc 30 centimes, Belgian value. 

"I have been informed that some commercial houses only give 
I franc for i mark. 

"If it comes to my knowledge henceforth that a mark is not 
counted as equal to i franc 30 centimes, I shall immediately have 
these shops closed and shall hold their owners responsible. 

"(Signed) Bleyhoffer, 
"Lieutenant-Colonel and Commandant. 
"St. Trond, September 6th, 1914." 



TRANSLATION. 

ORDER. 

"German money (in specie or in paper money) must be accepted 
as payment in occupied Belgian territory, and, until further orders, 
it is to be valued at, at least, 1 franc 25 centimes for i mark. 

"Brussels, October ^rd, 1914. 

"The Governor-General in Belgium, 

"Baron von der Goltz, 

"Field-Marshal.'' 



79 



THE FORCED PRICE OF THE MARK. 

The Diisseldorfer Zeitung of September 4th, 1914, announces 
that the miUtary Governor-General in the occupied parts of Belgium 
and France fixes the value of 100 marks at 130 francs. In fact, 
notices placarded at Charleroi, Saint-Trond, and Namur, and in the 
province of Liege, oblige the Belgians to accept German marks at 
this artificially high rate, which has made some merchants lose 
considerable sums of money. 



PROCLAMATION. 

"The circulation of German money having been the cause of 
some uncertainty, the price of the German mark has been fixed at 
I franc 30 centimes. 

"The attention of the public is drawn to the fact that all 
German paper-money must be accepted for financial transactions 
at the same rate as German money in specie. 

"The Governor. 
'* August 2^th, 1914." 

(Posted at Liige.) 



However, the intention to defraud was but too evident. On 
October 3rd, Baron von der Goltz announced that until further 
orders the mark was worth at least i franc 25 centimes. Since the 
mark is really worth i franc 8 centimes to i franc 15 centimes, the 
Belgians naturally try to refuse German notes. . . . Also, the 
new posters of November 4th and 15th oblige tradesmen to accept 
them. 

{Extract from the hook "Comment les Beiges risistent d la domina- 
tion allemande," by J. Massart, Vice-President of the Faculty of 
Science at the AcadSmie Royale de Belgique, pp. 175-6.) 



80 



THE "DEPORTATION" TO GERMANY OF^THE RESERVE 
OF GERMAN MARK NOTES BELONGING TO THE "BANQUE 
NATIONALS" AND THE *' SOCmTfi GfiNfiRALE DE 

BELGIQUE." 

Extract from the Report of the Plenary Meeting, held on 

September 4th, 1916, of the Directorates of the " Banque 

Nationale " and the ** Societe Generale de Belgique." 

The directorates of the " Banque Nationale de Belgique" and the 
"Societe Generale de Belgique" at their meeting to-day take note 
of the ultimatum of the German Government (translation) : — 

"Count Pocci has informed me of the discussion he has had 
with you in the course of the last week. I have to inform you that 
I must consider negotiations {pourparlers) as broken off if you refuse 
to submit, on your own responsibility, a proposal on the subject of 
the transfer to Germany of your reserve of mark notes ; I refuse to 
allow you to communicate with Le Havre, and I give you until 
Monday, September 4th, midnight (German time), to let me have 
a precise declaration as to whether you are prepared to transfer to 
Germany the reserve of German mark notes in accordance with the 
discussions that have already taken place, or whether you refuse to 
do so. If necessary, the details may be settled afterwards. 

"If you refuse to send your mark notes to the German banks, 
then you are conducting your business contrary to the interests of 
Germany. In this case, I have received orders to place the following 
institutions under control : the ' Banque Nationale de Belgique ' 
^nd the 'Societe Generale de Belgique.' 

"If the institutions oppose the control by passive resistance 
(by virtue of the fact that managers will retain some of their functions 
under the direction of the Controller) then it will be necessary to 
wind up these two institutions in the same way that the German 
banks have been wound up in England. 

"You have time during to-morrow to consider the consequences 
of these measures for your institutions and for your country. I 
order the two institutions to hold a meeting of directorates to-morrow, 
so that they may be in a position to give a valid declaration before 
the expiry of the time limit." 

In the face of this ultimatum, by which the "Societe Generale 
de Belgique" would be involved in the consequences of a persistent 
refusal by the "Banque Nationale" to allow its mark notes to be 
transferred to Germany, both from the reserve and also from the 
department for the issue of notes, and, in order to avoid the conse- 
quent losses which affect the general interests of the country, the 
directorates of the " Banque Nationale " and those of the "Societe 
Generale de Belgique" accede to the demand for transfer. 

81 



IV. 



THE CAMPAIGN OF LIES 
DESIGNED TO SAP THE NATIONAL 

MORAL 



COMMUNICATION BY BURGOMASTER MAX TO THE INHABITANTS 

OF BRUSSELS, GIVING A FORMAL DENIAL TO THE FALSE NEWS 

PUBLISHED BY THE GERMANS.— AUGUST 30TH, 1914. 



^^^^ VILLE DE RRUXELLES 

Le Gouvemeur Allemahd de 
la ViUe de Liege, Lieutenant-Gene- 
ral von Kolewe, a fait afiBcher hier 
la vis suivant : 

A¥X habit nnts^jfe In VUh de Urge. 
Le Boui-gnir^U'e He BnixoIIes a fail savoir an 
Conimanciaiit allentand que le Gou\f rnement 
frannils n declare ao CoinerneraenI bels^e 
l1n)possilNfite de Tassister oflensivenr< of f»n 
aueune manH^re. y'u qa^\ so vol! lui-inenie Unre 
a la delensi\e. » 

Joppose k cette affirmation le 
dementi le plus formeL 

Le BoKrgmesire^ 

^ ^Adolphe MA2L 



84 



HOW THE GERMANS SUPPRESS THE TRUTH: THE 
DEPORTATION OF BURGOMASTER MAX. 

Burgomaster Max having courageously defended the rights of 
his fellow-citizens, the Germans deported him without any form 
of trial. Below is the text of the poster announcing this measure to 
the population of Brussels. 

NOTICE. 

"Burgomaster Max, having failed to fulfil the engagements 
made with the German Government, I find myself obliged to suspend 
him from office. Mr. Max is now in honourable confinement in a 

"The Military Governor, 

"Baron von LiJttwitz, General. 
"Brussels, September 26th, 1914." 

Burgomaster Max never knew the legal reason for his arrest 
and deportation. He is still a prisoner in Germany. In November, 
1916, a card was received from him, saying : "Since the 12th instant 
I am again tasting the calm of solitary confinement. I know neither 
for what reason nor for how long." 

M. Max is incarcerated at the "Nordlich Militar- Arrest Anstalt" 
in Berlin, whither he was brought from Celle-Schloss. 



TRANSLATION. 

CITY OF BRUSSELS. 

"The German Governor of the Town of Liege, Lieutenant-General 
Von Kolewe, has had the following announcement posted up : 

"T^o the Inhabitants of the Town of LiSge, 

"The Burgomaster of Brussels has informed the German 
Commandant that the Belgian Government has received a 
declaration from the French Government stating that it is not 
able to offer any kind of offensive assistance, being itself forced 
to act on the defensive. 

** I oppose to this statement the moTst categorical denial. 

"Brussels, August ^oth, 1914. "The Burgomaster, 

"Adolphe Max." 

85 



NOTICE TO THE PUBLIC OF NAMUR ANNOUNCING THE SUS- 
PENSION OF THE PAPER " L'AMI DE L'ORDRE." 
END OF NOVEMBER, 1914. 




VwwUmwMlm {{{' \M\rin\vi' h Aiuiiiir, a on<'» jmiIiImt ditiis mmi 

a liMHiroil r(siT\(' |mmii* I(»s nMiiiiMiHi(alion> (f<* lauforilo 
;UI(Mnaiiil(% uii |mm'»iih\ lrijiiHen\ el oiifragcaHl |«mii' la Halioii 
allcinaiide. 

4V\j)i'ini(' moil iiHlii^iialioii, el m jMvsenre des seiitiiHcrHs 
aussi \ilaijis <|iie ladies, j ordoiiue : 

1. La publication du journal . L'Ami de I'Ordrc^ ». est 
suspend ue. 

2. Le nujnero vise doit dtre detruit, quiconque sera 
trouve en possession d'un exemplaire sera poursuivi. 

3. Le directeur et le redacteur sent arrales. 

4. Des poursuites Judlciaires sent introduites; les 
coupables subiront les peines ies plus s^Veres, eon lor- 
mement aux lois martiales. 

6. n est defend u jusqu'a une date ultarieure de re^; 
pandpe et de vendre des journaux non aliemands, et 
eeci dans toute la place fortinee de Namur. 

6. Je I'ais robiig-aLion ^ touie ia popufeLiqXi de Namur 
de me denoncer les coupables et de porit r a ma con- 
naissanee tout sou peon serieux qui pourrait amener 
I'arrestation des coupables mettant louie une popu- 
lation en dan^pr 

Um-m Mm IlinSCIHIKIU;, 



ruviN!'. r«t. fh i ei.,i\. a«w;jH 



86 



FATE OF A BELGIAN NEWSPAPER SUBJECTED TO 
GERMAN CENSORSHIP. 

Since the first months of the invasion, the Germans suppressed 
all the Belgian journals which refused to submit to the censorship. 
Many of the editors destroyed their own premises and left the 
country. However, at Namur, the paper Ami de I'Ordre was 
compelled to reappear : it informed its readers that it had been 
obliged to yield to force. 

One day the Ami de I'Ordre received from one of its readers a 
poem, apparently of an inoffensive character, which it hastened 
to print in its columns. On closer inspection it could be perceived 
that the initial letters of each line, joined together, spelt four words 
extremely insulting to the Germans. The journal had been made 
the victim of a patriotic mystification by one of its readers. The 
moment the German Governor had his attention drawn to the 
incident, he took the steps described in the notice translated below. 



TRANSLATION. 

PUBLIC NOTICE. 

"L'Ami de I'Ordre, the only newspaper which has received 
permission to appear at Namur, has dared to publish in its issue of 
November 29th on the first page, and actually in the space reserved 
for German official communications, a poem which is injurious and 
insulting to< the German nation. I express my indignation, and, 
in view of the offensive nature of these expressions, 1 order : — 

" I. The publication of the paper L'Ami de I'Ordre is suspended. 

"2. The number in question must be destroyed: anyone 
found in possession of a copy will be proceeded against. 

"3. The manager and editor are arrested. 

"4. Judicial proceedings have been begun ; the guilty will 
be most severely punished, according to martial law. 

"5. It is forbidden, until further notice, to circulate or to sell 
any but German newspapers in the whole of the fortified area of 
Namur. 

"6. I lay an obligation on all the inhabitants of Namur to 
denounce any guilty persons to me, and to draw my attention to any 
serious suspicions which may lead to the arrest of the guilty, who 
are putting the whole population in danger. 

"Baron von Hirschberg, 
"Lieutenant-General 
"and Governor of the fortified position of Namur." 

87 



WAR NEWS PUBLISHED IN BELGIUM BY THE GERMAN GOVERN- 
MENTi ON SEPTEMBER qth and ioth, 191 4. 



des 
:meQts. 



3.'S<.|iU'HibiT 
a(, LcrichlHe 
iiiiU(a«risvlie 
I' YOn Fmgen 
liensmiitelzu- 
seschloss^n. 
(lem Briel an 
11, 4(ijss zabl- 
> unifrtasj, die 
sit^'la^lich 
glkhkeil des 



\.,rddeuluhe 
aclisitbeodes 
I PrisideDten 

hi, HeiT Pra- 
en Verlrnler 
1 jir beotcb- 
aitr 4nuis6si- 

'rTJilK-'ii (Ion 
K>t '■ enideckt 
' Regierungs- 
(-iisob;he G»- 
verwundeten 
tischc n Trup- 
M h 1 cKlidien 
\eiursachen, 
aneikannlen 
ierlils string 
k" linen /eier- 
Kr' ;;frihriii)g, 
I (.••jiner eine 
lie 111. Hinder 
xi' ciie>v giau- 
I I IxrigiRhe 
.i I.eltiisclien 
i>0< II frniiKigt 
]iu Diesclbsl 
"Ti (JiM-nlla- 
K h an vcr- 
...1 mid Pde- 
fl. l.iizaiilie 
mtiiit tlenii tig, 
iiiigi-n waion, 
mil di<- Scliiil- 
-• ■;■ I! A.-.llv.- 
liiiii|*<1irli«Mi 
Ki-ii. Uiiigc 
I l.iiw'h. mil 
» iiiii»li-ii III 

illil, \MIIII nil 

' III iiIIk li gf- 

•i /.iililliiseii 

III iiii iind 

ill's li:ill»;iii- 



Nouvelles publi^es par le 
Gouvernement allemand. 



Paris,9 septembre. Au Conseil des Minislres 
ttiiu le 3 sepiembre, h Bordeaux, le Minislre 
dc la guerre M. Millerand, a fait rappurl sur 
la situation iniliiaire. Eosuite on n iraite une 
serie de questions, notammeni celle de I'ali- 
inentation. La session parlemenlaire a ete 
close. 

M. Viviaei, president du Conseil, Tait re^i - 
lir diins sa letlre au president de Ic Chambre 
que de nombrcm deputes se trouvent comnu 
soldais parmi les troupes el que les calaniito 
qui pesentsur la France Augmenteolde jodreii 
jour et empteheni la Cbanibre de se reunir 



lo.\ 
Kan 
Mill 
den |i 
dig>li> 
di.- Ki 
dit (I- 
same 



Berlin, 10 septembre. I.a NorddeuUch* AH- 
gemeine Zeilung publie le lelegramme suivani 
adresse par I'Empereurau President des Etal>- 
Unis Wilson: 

«Je considere commeoion devoir.Monsieur 
le President de vous informer, en voire qua- 
lite de represenlant le p^us distingu^ des priy 
cipes hunnianitaires, de ce fail que mes troupes 
oot Irouve, aprSs la prise de la forteressc 
francaise de Longwy, dans cette place, des 
oiiiliers de batlts dum-dum travaillees par des 
ateliers speciaux du gouvernement. Des balles 
dc la m^uie espece on( ete trouvees sur des 
soldats morls ou blesses, ou prisonniers, de 
nalionalile anglai.sc. Vous savez quelles Imr- 
riblcs blessuresel soulfrances sont causces p.-ii 
ces baJles et que remplol en est interdit par 
les principes reconnus du droit inlernaiioiinl. 
Jeleve done une protestation solennelle contre 
pareil mode dc faire la guerre qui est devenu 
gr*ce aux meiliodes de nos adversaires, un 
des plus barliarcs de I'hisloire. 

> Non seulemenl ils onleux-memes employe 
cette arrae cruclle.mais Ic Gouvernement' beige 
a encourage ouvertcineni la population civile 
a prendre pari a cette guerre qu'il avail pre- 
paree soigneuscment d^pui? loiiglcnips. Les 
criiautes commiscs, au cours dc cette (jiiehUa. 
par des femnies el incme par des pivlrcs 
loiilre des solJals blesses, des mcdeciiis el iIcn 
inlinnicrcs (des incdecins out etc tucs et des 
lazarets nllaqui-s a coups de feu), out cleirlles 
que iiics gcncraiix se soiit liiialenieni vii obli- 
ges dr rci'ourir aux iiioycns les plus rigoureux 
pour ilialiiT les coupables ct pour einpcclier 
la population saiigiiiiinirc dc roiiiiiiiicr cc^ 
alxMiiinnlili-i actes crilllllll'l^ d inln-iix I'ln 
sieiirs \illHgc^ PI. mciiic In \'illc dc l.iiinaiii 
mil dii clti' ilciiiiiliN (>aul k- lr<-> lul Hold dr 
Villci «laiis riiiicrci de noire defense rl dc la 
prniccliiiii dc iiio iroupc> Mon ni'iir saigiic 
i|iiaiid jc vnis i|iic parcillcs nicsiircs out cle 
rciidiics iuc\ilalde>, el, qiiand jc songc aii\ 
iiiniiiiibrablcN iiinmcois qui oni |>erdu Iciir 
toil ci Iciirsliicns par suile des f.r.s iles criiiii- 
iicU en qiicslion. 



• WiLllEM I. R. » 



Lt CBiKfitiil MilitJi 



van 

dec! 

miji 

kogeU 

labnc 

ko-el- 

licsne 

eiiiirl . 

kciijk 

de 

du- 

(lel\> 
baw 
SleK 



Nole Ike passage on the desfruction of Louvain. 
al^(->y()ual of this act. 



The Kaiser signifies his 



AN IMPERIAL SLANDER AND ITS EFFECT. 

The text of the "news" given here contains the famous telegram from the German 
Emperor to the President of the United States, accusing the Belgians of carrying on a 
war of francs-tireurs and of committing the worst atrocities. Here are a few German 
commentaries on the Imperial utterance : — 

"What is the source ol our Emperor's information in these cases ? Is it the articles 
in the papers we have seen up till now, or has the High Command furnished him with 
precise details of these individual cases ? The first hypothesis may be excluded in view 
of the gravity of the subject. But if our Emperor gets his information from unimpeachable 
sources in this case, no one would be more anxious than we Catholics for the publication 
of individual cases, which, like every one else, we would brand and execrate. ..." 
{" Koelnische Volkszeitung," September 10th, 1914, No. 801.) 
{This journal was suspended for twenty-four hours for having dared to criticise, 
even indirectly, the Imperial utterance.) 

"The grave accusations which I have quoted are not only partially false and grossly 
exaggerated, but they are pure inventions and untrue in every detail. . . ." 

". . . in no case has it been ofl&cially shown that shots had been fired from belfries 
with the co-operation of the priests. ..." 

{Lorenz Miiller, in the review, " Der Fels," 10th year, January, 1915, p. 161 ; 

February, 1915, p. 181.) 

"Our Emperor has telegraphed to the President of the United States of North 
America that ' even women and priests committed atrocities in this guerrilla warfare, 
wounding soldiers and ambulance workers.' How this telegram can be reconciled with 
the above fact (that nothing can be laid to the charge of the priests) we shall not know 
until after the war." {Lorenz Midler, in the same review.) 



TRANSLATION. 

News published by the German Government. 

"Paris, September 9th. — At the Council of Ministers, held on September 3rd, at 
Bordeaux, the Minister for War, M. Millerand, made a report on the miUtary situation. 
After that a number of questions were dealt with, particularly those relating to the food 
problem. 

"M. Viviani, the Prime Minister, emphasises, in his letter to the President of the 
Chamber, the fact that many deputies have enlisted as soldiers, and are now with the 
Army, and that the calamities crushing France become heavier every day and prevent 
the Chamber from meeting." 

" Berlin, September 10th. — The N or ddeutsche Allgemetne Zeitung publishes the following 
telegrams addressed by the Emperor to Mr. Wilson, President of the United States :— 

' ' I consider it my duty, Mr. President, to inform you in your capacity as the most 
eminent representative of principles of humanity, that my troops, on taking possession 
of the fortress of Longwy, found there thousands of dum-dum bullets made in special 
Government workshops. Similar projectiles have also been found upon wounded soldiers 
and prisoners belonging to the British Army. It is known that these bullets cause cruel 
wounds, and the use of them is rigorously forbidden by the sacred principles of inter- 
national law. 

' ' I therefore send you an indignant protest against this way of conducting the war, 
which, owing to the methods of our adversaries, has become one of the most barbarous 
known to history. The Belgian Government has not only made use of these cruel weapons, 
but it has openly encouraged the participation of the Belgian civihan population in this 
war, for which it has made long and careful preparations. The cruelties perpetrated in 
this guerrilla warfare by women, children, and priests, even upon wounded soldiers, 
numbers of the medical staff, and ambulance attendants (doctors have been slain, 
ambulances have been fired upon), have been such that my generals have finally been 
compelled to have recourse to the most rigorous methods in order to chastise the offenders 
and to spread terror through a population thirsting for blood, and so turn it from 
the pursuit of murders and horrors. Many celebrated monuments, even the old city of 
Louvain, with the exception of the beautiful H6t§l de Ville, have been destroyed for the 
protection of our troops in legitimate defence. My heart bleeds to find such measures 
rendered necessary and to think of the innumerable innocents who have lost their hves 
and property through the barbarous conduct of these criminals ! 

"{Signed) Wilhelm I.R. 

''The German Military Government.'' 

89 



WAR NEWS PLACARDED BY THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT IN 
BRUSSELS.— SEPTEMBER 22ND, 1914. 



Veroffentlichungen des 
deutschen Gouvernements. 



Berlin, tS. S«plemlK>r. (Aindirhc Meldiing von 
frestern Abend.) fiei den Kaeniplen uni IVeiins 
wurden die tesdingsarligcn I loelien von (^mo- 
Belle eroberl und im Voittchen gegon das bren- 
nende Reims der Ort BcUicny gennmmcn. Beini 
Angrifl gegen die Sperrlordinie suedlicli von 
Verdun ueberschrill unser siegreiilier Ostnind 
die voigelagerte, vom (ranzoesisclicn aohten 
Amieeliorps verteidigte Cote lorraine. 

Ein Auslall «us der Nordoslfronl von Veidiin 
wurde rurueekgewiesen. Xoerdlich von Toul, 
wurden Iranzoesisclien Truppen ini Biwak dureli 
Arlilleriereuer ueberrasclit. 

Ira L'ebrigen (anden heiile aul detn Iranzoe- 
sischem Kriegsschauplalz keine g^wszeren 
Kaempfe slat 

In Relgien und in Osten ii\. die Lage unveraen- 
dert 



London, J4. September. Das Pressbureau 
d^emenliert oflHziell die Nachricht von der Lan- 
dung nissischer Truppen in Frankreich. 



Slockholm, 52. September. (Amliiehe Meldung.) 
En Londoner Telegmmm ah Stockholms Dagblad 
leilt mit, dasz die franzoeslschen Antelfieversuche 
fti Anierika endgillig gescheiiert sind, da die 
•merikanische Regierung ihre Zustimmung ver- 
veigerte. Frankreich soil jeUt Ersatz in London 
auchen. 



Berlin, it. September. (Amilioh.) In der Nacht 
TOra 49. zum iO. September isl Major Charles 
'Alice Yale, vom Yorkshirs Light Inlanlery Regi- 
ment aus der Kriegsgeiangenschaft in Torgau 
entwichea. Yate ist der englischer StabsofTizier 
▼on dem juengst berichtel wurde, er habe aul 
Belragen nicht bestritlen, dass den engtischen 
Truppen Oum-dum Geschosse aasgehaendigt 
worden selen. Im Verlaul jenes Verhoers er- 
klaerte er, man mueszle doch mil der .Munition 
schieszen, die die Regierung geiielert habe. Der 
Entflohene ist etwa l°,73 grosz. schlank. blond 
und sprichl tertig deulsch 

Wschi iJ. S<eptember. Das serbische Press- 
bureau meldet : Ais Prinz Georg von Serbien an 
der Spilze seines Bataillons zum Slurme voi-jrin;", 
» urde er in der Naehe der \Virl)elsaeulo von 
eineni Geschoss getroflen, das aus dem rcchlen 
Lungenfluegel herausdrang. Die Verlelzim^; ist 
angetaehrlich 



M DuDtete IWiayerDieiil 



Nouvelles publi6es par le 
Gouvernement allemand. 



Berlin; S9 scptcmbre. Ijn communique olB- 
ciel d'hicr soir annonce : An cours dcs com- 
bats aulourde Reims, Ics hauteurs de Crao- 
ncllc, semblables a dcs fortcresscs, out etc 
prises ct dans la marclic vers la vill#'cn feu 
de Reims, I'endroil de Itrllicu] u Oie pris. Au 
<;ours (Ic raila(|ue coiiire les lorts d'arrSt au 
Sud de Verdun, nos troupes viciorieuscs de 
I'Esl out passe la cote lorraine dcfendue par 
le liuilieme corps d'armee IranQais. 

Une sortie cntreprise par le Iront iNord-Est 
de Verdun a cte repoussee. Au INord dcToiil, 
des troupes IrauQaises ont ele surprises- au 
bivouac par notre artillerie. 

Pour le resie, aucun combat important n'a 
eu lieu aujourd'hui sur le'thc^tre de la guerre 
de France. 

En Belgique et i I'Esl (Russie) la situation 
ne s'est pas modifiee. 

Londres, ii septembre. Le Bureau de la 
Presse dement officiellement la nouvelle dun 
debarquemenl de troupes russes en France. 



Stockholm, H septembre. Ln telegramme 
adresse de Londres au Stockholms Dagblad 
annonce que la tenlativ* d'emettre un empruot 
Irancais aux Elats-Hnis a 6choue, le gouverne- 
ment americaiii en ayant refuse I'autorisation. 
La France doit mainienant essayer de placer 
son enfprunl a Londres. 



Berlin, ii septembre. Pans la nuit du 19 
au 20 septembre, le major Charles-Alice Yate, 
du regiment de la Yorkshire Light Infantry, 
s'est ^vade de Torgau oil il elail prisonnier dc 
guerre. Yate est cet oflScier superieur anglais 
au sujet de qui il fut I'autre jour annonce qui! 
ne contesta pas, sur une demande, que les 
troupes angiaises ont ete munies de balles 
dnin-duni ; au cours de cet interrogaloire, il 
declara que le soldat doit evidemmept se ser- 
vir des munitions qui lui sont lournies par le 
Gouvernement. Le fugitif a environ I", 73 de 

frandeur ; il est elance, blond et parle bien 
allemant! 

Dc Nisrh, I'agence de la presse mande le 
22 septembre . I.orsque le prince George con- 
duisil ses troupes a I'assaul, il tut frappe a la 
colonne vertebrate par un projectile qui res- 
soi tit du c6tc du poumon droit. La blessure 
nest pas dangereuse 



IfiteriitilifclMl. 



Hededeelingen van het 
duitsche Gouvernement. 



Berlijn, 22 September. {Ambtelijke melding 
gisleren.) Itij de gevechlen rond Reims, zijn de 
gcvcsligde verhevenlieden van Grannelle vero- 
verd, en het dorp Belheny in ile vooruilgaande 
beweging tegcn de brandende slad Reims ioge- 
nomen gewordcn. DezegevierendeOostervleugel 
heelt, de in liel Zuidcn van Verdun lij^ende ver- 
sperringslorlen aanVallend, de cote Lori-aine 
overlreden, die door het fransche achlsle leger- 
koii)s verdedigd was. 

Een uilval nil de .\'oord-Oostliin van Verdun is 
teruggeworpen geworden. In het >'oorden van 
Toul zijn de frnnsche Iroepen in hun legerplaals 
door artillerievuur verrast geworden 

Buiten dit hebben heden op het fransche oor- 
logstooneel geen groole gevechlen plaats ge- 
vonden. 

In Belgie en in het Oosten is de siluatie onver- 
anderd. 



Londen, 22 September. — Het engelsche Pers- 
bureau logenslralt het bericht over de lauding 
van russische Iroepen in Frankrijk. 

Stockholm, 22 September. (Ambtelijke mel- 
ding.) Een telegram uit Londen aan be( Stock- 
holm* Dagblad deeldt mede dat de pogiogen voor 
eene Iransche leening in Amerika afdoend mis- 
lukt zijn, omdal de amerikaansche regeering 
haar toestemming gewijgerd heelt. Frankrijk zou 
nu in Engeland schadeloosstelling zoeken 

Berlijn, 22 September. (Amblelijk.) Jn den 
nacht van 19 tot 20 September Is de engelsche 
majoor Charles-Alice Yate, van het Yorkshire 
Light inlantry regiment uit het krijgsgevangen- 
schap in Torgau onlsnapl. Yate is de officier van 
den engelschen slal van wien laatstleden bericht 
wierdl ontvangen dat hij op eene vraag niel had 
bestreden, dat aan de engelsche Iroepen Dum 
Oumkogelszijn uilgelcverd geworden. In den loop 
van dit verlioor verklaarde hij dat men loch met 
de am;initie nioest schieten die door de regeering 
geleverd wordt. De ontsnaple was omtrenl 
I '73 g^ool, slank, blond en spreekt goed duitsch. 

Nisch. 22 Sepicnibor. Het servische Persburcel 
vermeldl : A Is Prinz Georg van Servic aan het 
hoofd van zijn bataijon sturmloopend vo<iruil- 
ging, is hij door een kogel oabij de wervelkolora 
getroflen die door de rechierlong weder uitging. 
.Dekwelsing is ongevaarlijk 



EelDDitteiililinBiil 



90 



THE AIM OF THE " NEWS PUBLISHED BY THE GERMAN 
GOVERNMENT." 

"The object in view was to impress the Belgians, to make them lose con- 
fidence in the justice of their cause, in their Government, in their Allies ; it was 
also an attempt to persuade them that the German Powers were invincible, 
to lead them to be resigned to their fate and lose hope of revenge and 
reparation. To gain this end, nothing was neglected. As soon as the civil 
administration was established at Brussels under Marshal von der Goltz, a 
swarm of German agents descended on the town ; many among them had lived 
there before the war, and had left it willy-nilly at the time of the mobilisation. 
They now appeared again, some in uniform, and with perfect unconcern they 
proceeded to call on the families whom they used to visit. . . . On the other 
hand, as the Brussels papers had ceased to appear, and, in spite of the formal 
invitation of the Governor, had refused to appear, there were started a number 
of little anti-Belgian papers which submitted to German censorship and in 
which, beside the German official communiques, were found certain inspired 
articles, certain prejudiced pieces of information, which manifestly were 
intended to make the Belgians believe that they had sacrificed themselves use- 
lessly for France and England, and to lead them to accept the situation as 
irrevocable. . . . But, besides these stealthy measures, the Government 
attempted to make a more direct impression on pubHc opinion. They knew 
well that in a town deprived of news, people would feel obliged to read the 
posters. That is why they took steps to cover the walls of Brussels with a 
regular war newspaper." 

(L. Dumont-Wilden, in the preface of " Comment les Allemands font V opinion." 

Paris. 1915.) 



TRANSLATION. 

News published by the German Government. 

"Berlin, September 22. (Official communique of yesterday evening.) — 
In the course of some fighting around Rheims, the heights of Graonelle, which 
were like fortresses, were taken, ^nd on their march towards the burning town 
of Rheims our troops also took the village of Betheny. In the course of an 
attack against the outer forts to the South of Verdun, our victorious East 
wing passed the "Cote Lorraine," which was defended by the French 8th 
Army Corps. 

"A sortie made on the north-east of Verdun was repulsed. North of 
Toul, the French troops were surprised in a rest camp by our artillery. 

"Otherwise no important fighting has occurred in the theatre of war 
in France. 

"The situation has not changed in Belgium or in the East (Russia)." 

"London, Septeniher 22nd. — The Press Bureau officially denies the rumour 
that Russian troops were disembarked in France." 

"Stockholm, September 22nd. — A telegram from London to the Stockholtn 
Dagblad states that an attempt to place a French loan in the United States 
has failed, the American Government having refused their sanction, Frarce 
will, therefore, be obliged to try to place a loan in London." 

"Berlin, September 22nd. — On the night of September 19-20, Major 
Charles-Alice Yate, Yorkshire Light Infantry, escaped from Torgau, where he 
was a prisoner of war. Yate is that superior officer of whom it was stated, the 
other day, that when interrogated, he did not deny that the English troops 
were provided with dum-dum bullets. In the course of this examination, he 
declared that the soldier must evidently use the munitions served out to him 
b5'^ the Government. The fugitive is about 1.75m. tall; he is slight, fair, 
and speaks German well." 

" Nish, September 22nd. — The Serbian Press Bureau states: 'As Prince 
George was leading troops to the attack, he was struck near the vertebral 
column by a projectile which came out on the side of the right lung. The 
wound IS not dangerous.' '* 

"The German Military Government." 

91 



WAR NEWS PLACARDED BY THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT IN 
BRUSSELS.— SEPTEMBER 29TH, 191 4 



Verdffentlichungen des 
deutschen Gouvernements. 



Nouvelles publi6es par le 
Gouvernement allemand. 



London, t9. Sep(m)bci' Das RciihtscIm' Bii- 
retu mcldet aiis Prscloriii voniSi Sc|tlembcr : 
D«e Polizoisialion Rietlontcin >»urde nm t9 Sep- 
tember von eincr deulschcn Abtcilung. etwa 
too Mann surk, genommen. (Es tiandell sich uin 
at zimilidi bedciilciide eiigliMrlio SUiti<iii Hid- 
lOBtein. die 6stlicii von Ketunan$iK>o|i UcgU) 



Beriia. M. September Aus Saloniki «ird 
gemddet : Nach Nachrichlen aus MonasUr brach 
tf tferCegeod von Dibra ein albanisclier AulsUnd 
Ml. wobei die Serben verlrieben wurden 



Wien. «9. September. Die Rtiehtpott meldet 
■us Soto : Dcr BerichlerslaUer der Volja des 
Ofganes'von Ghenadjews ineidel aus Nisch : Die 
fcterreichische Oflensive hal schwere Folgeo lur 
Serbien ; es gihrt im Volk und in der Armee und 
leder Tag kaon den allgemeinen Aulsland brin- 
feo Dieser Tafce meulerten wieder mebrere 
Irtillerieregjroenler. Dne Aniahl CescbflUe 
•vwden demoliert TagUchslerbeo SCO- 500 Per- 
■ooeo. deon die allgemeine Hygiene wird er- 
UrmHcti vemacblasigt unddieSoidalen weigern 
iicfa,Posten bei den Cholerabaracken zu be- 
vebCn. Die Mililiriiga soil angesicbu dieser Ver- 
killnisse wichUge Beschlusse gefasst habeo, 
tfanmter einen wegen eines an Paschilsch, den 
Mnisterprasidenlen, zu sleliendea Ultimatums, 
is dem er aulgelordert Vird, hundert Aerzte, 
4ni Bakleriologen uod eioe geoi]«ende Menge 
won Praparaten aut kuraeslem Wege nach Ser- 
lien bringen zu lassen. KOnig Peter ist zuriick- 
Kekebrt. er ist stumpi und leilnabmslos upd der 
Kronprinz Alexander weiss keinea flat. 
PHcUlachs Stem ist im VerWassen und man 
feeMrcfatet. dass es in seinen Kreisen bald Opfer 
lebeowird 



Paris, 57. September Elne Taubt flog Vormil- 
tag < I Ubr unter dem Schutze des Kebels uber 
Paris. Sie wari in der L'mgebung des Eifleltuniis 
■ehrere Bomben ab.Eine lie! aul die Avenue du 
Yhocadero, tddlete einen Creis und verwundele 
«eioe Tochter. Nan giaubt, dass die Bomben lur 
4te Funkenstalion des Eiflelturms bestlmmt 
vareo 



Oeitt iiMfflErueMiil 



lA>iidrcs. M sc|ilcinbre. L'Agence Reuier 
uianilc <lc Pretoria, ^ seplembrc : La station 
lie |>o1icc «]c Hielfontain a etc prise, le 19 sep- 
tcnibre, pjir un dctachciiient allemand. Tort 
de too hommes environ. (II sagit de la station 
an^laise asscz importantc de Rieirontain.situ^e 
a ITst de Ketlwanithoop). 



Berlin, t9 aeplembre On mande de Salo- 
nique, d'apr^ des nouvelles de Monastir, 
qu'une revolte albanaiae a eclale dans la region 
de i»ibra, au cours de laquelle Us Serbes onl 



Vieone, »9 aeptembre La Retehtpo*l 
anuooce de SoOa : Le correspondent de la 
Volja, orgaoe de Gheoadjew, 6crii de Niscli : 
LofTensive autrichienne a des suites graves 
pour la Serbie; la r6volte gronde dans le 
pays et dans Tarmee, et chaque jour peut faire 
eclater la revolution. Ces jours-ci, plusieurs 
regiments d'artillerie ^ sont encore ri\oUes. 
Ln ceruio nombre de canons ont eli demolis. 
Journellemeni, 1 * 500 pcrsonnes meurenl, 
car I'hygiene publique est lamentablemeot 
negligee, et les soldali refusent de mooter la 
garde k proximitedes baraques ou se trouveni 
les malades atteinu du cholera. La Li^ue 
miliuire aurail pris, en presence de pareille 
situation, des decisions imporlantes, entre 
autrestMieau sujeld'un uhimatuma adresserau 
ministre-president Paachitsch, pour le sominer 
de faire amcner en Serbie, pfer la voie la plus 
courle, cent medecins, irois bactcriologues 
et des quantites sufflsantes de medicainenls. 
Le roi Pierre est renlre; il est compleiemeni 
apathique et le prince heritier Alexandre ne 
salt que laire. L'etoile de Paschitsch p&lit et 
loncraint qu'il n°y ail bient6t de^victimes 
dans son entourage 



Mededeelingen van het 
duitsche Gouvernement. 



Londen, 99 September. Het Reuterbureau 
\eniieldt ult Pretoria van 44 September: De 
politieplnats Rietronlcin is den 19* September 
ingenoinen gewoiden door eene duitsche aldee- 
lingomtrenl 900 man sterk.(Dlt is de beduldende 
engelsche plaals Kietlunt^ln. in het Oosten van 
Keltmunshoop.! 



Derlijn. 99 September Uil Salonika word! 
vermeldt : Volgens tijdingen uit Monastir is in dt 
omstreken van Dibra een albaneesische opsUncI 
uilgebroken, waarbij de Serviers verdreven zijn 
geworden. 



Weeoen, 99 September. De Rtieh*po*t ver- 
meldt uit Sofia : De correspondent van het dag- 
blad Volja, het blad van Ghenadjew, v^meldt 
uit Mscli : De oo.stenrijksche oflensSel-beweginf 
been zware gevolgen voor Servie ; het volk ea 
htt leger zijn onlevreden en iederen dag kan ^ 
algeroeeneopstand uitbrekeo.Laaistledeo bebben 
opnieuw eenige arilllerieregiment^n gemuiterd. 
Een aanlal AapoooeQ zilo vef^ueld geweadei^ 
Dagelijks slcrVen tOO lot 500 meqscben omdf 
de openbarc hygiene geheel wordl verwaarf 
looid, en de soldalen weigereoaan de cholera- 
legerkampen schlldwacbl le staan. De miUlaire 
liga zou ten aanzien van deie sitnatie belangriike 
besluiten gevat hebben, waarondcr eeo beshiit 
omtrent een aan Paschitsch, deo presideot van 
den ministerraad te overhandigen ultiiaatum. 
waarin hij gesomroeerd wonH hooderd genees- 
heeren, drie bacterienkundigea envoldoende 
hoeveelheden geneesmiddeleD,oj>den korlsl mo- 
lljken *eg. naar Servi« te laten brengen. 
ironing Peter is teruggekeerd, hi| b ttompzinnif 
en ongevoelig.en de Kroonprins Alexander weel 
geenen raad. Paschitsch's popularitell b aan b«t 
verdwijnen en men vrdesl dat er in deze kringe« 
binnen kort slachloflers zullen zi|n. 



Paris. 97 seplembrc. tn avion Taubt a passe 
ce matin, ii tl lieures, au-dcssus de Pans II 
ajetedans le brouillard. au\ environs de la 
Tour Eiffel, plusieurs bombes sur Paris. 
Lune est tombce dans lavcnue du Trocadcro; 
elle a tuc un vieillard et blessc sa fille. On 
croit que les bombes ctaient destinees au 
posle de telegraphic sans fil de la Tour Eiffel. 



le CiiiTerDiiisiit iilitair& ilkii 



Parljs. 97 September. Een vilegtuig Tmibe )t 
hedenmorgend om W uren, onder beschermhig 
van den mist,over Parijs gevlogeo. Hij wierp ver- 
scheidene bommen in de oaUjheld van den Glflel-' 
toren. Eene bom viel in de Trocaderolaaa. 
waar een oude man gedood en zijn docbter. 
gekweist werd. Men geloott dat de bommen 
voor het radio-lelegraphisch sUtion op den 
Eiflelloren bestemd waren. 



iDiittlliiiitliimi 



92 



HOW THE GERMANS TOLD THE PEOPLE OF BRUSSELS WHAT 
HAD] OCCURRED AT THE BATTLE OF THE MARNE. 

Extracts from the ** News published by the German 
Government." * 

"Berlin, September 10th. — Our army corps, which in the course of the 
pursuit advanced to and beyond the Mame, were attacked between Meaux 
and Montmirail by superior forces coming from Paris. In the course of heavy 
fighting, which lasted two days, they held up the enemy, and themselves made 
some progress. When the advance of strong enemy forces was announced, 
our flank retired. The enemy did not follow it up at any point. L"'p to the 
present, we have taken 50 guns and several thousand prisoners." 

"Berlin, September 14th. (Official.) — In the Western theatre of war 
(France) there have been operations of which the details cannot be published 
yet, and which led to a battle in our favour. All news spread by the enemy 
representing the situation as unfavourable for us are false." 

"Berlin, September 17th. — The Lokalanzeiger, of Berlin, writes, with the 
approval of the military authorities : 'The battle on the Mame is not yetfat an 
end, but it has evidently taken a favourable turn for us. The right wing has 
not given way before a new attack ; button the 'contrary has repulsed an 
attempt by the French to break through our lines.' " 



TRANSLATION. 

News published by the German Government. 

"London, September 29th. — Renter's agency learns from Pretoria, 
September 24th : 'The Police Station of Rietfontein'^was taken on September 
19th by a German detachment about 200 strong.' " (Rietfontein is an 
important English station situated east of Kettmanshoop.) 

" Berlin, September 29th. — News comes from Salonica that, according 
to' information received from Monastir, an Albanian revolt has broken out 
in the region of Dibra, during which the Serbians were driven out." 

"Vienna, September 29th. — The Reichspost announces from Sofia: 'The 
correspondent of the Volja, organ of Ghenadjew, writes from Nish : "The 
Austrian offensive has had' serious consequences for Serbia f discontent is rife 
in the country and in the army, and a revolution may break out at any moment. 
The last few days several army corps have mutinied. A certain' number' of 
guns were destroyed. Daily about 200 to 300 persons die, as public'fhygiene 
is lamentably neglected and the soldiers refuse to^mount guard in''the''neigh-' 
bourhood of the barracks where cholera patients are lodged. The Military 
League has taken important decisions in view of the seriousness'of the situation. • 
and amongst other things has addressed an ultimatum to the minister-president, 
Paschitsch, insisting that he send to Serbia by the sliortest route 100 doctors, 
3 bacteriologists and sufficient supplier of medicines. King Peter has returned ; 
he is completely apathetic, and the Crown Prince Alexander does not knoiv 
'what to do. Paschitsch's star is waning, and it is feared that there will soon 
be victims in his circle." * " 

"Paris, September 27th. — A Taube aeroplane passed over l>aris at 11 this 
morning. It threw several bombs in the fog, near the Kiffel Tower. One' fell 
in the Avenue du Trocadero, and killed an old man and wounaeo his daughter. 
It is supposed that the bombs were aimed at the Eiffel Tower, where there is 
a wireless installation." 

'The German Military Government." 

Q3 



WAR NEWS PLACARDED BY THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT IN 
BRUSSELS.— OCTOBER 6th, 1914. 



YerOffentlichungeii des 
deutschen Gouvernements. 



Nouvelles publi6es par le 
Gouvernement allemand. 



Mededeelingen van het 
duitsche Gouvernement. 



B«iim,6. Oklober. DerSonderberichterslatler 
4er BtrhHT Zmtung am MitUg meldel, dass 
Mm ent«n Sturm auf die iDlanle riewerke in 
T<iingUo die vereinigleD Japaner und Coglander 
mil Aiseaa VeriuM von S.SOO Mann xunickge- 
«-hlageo wurden. Die Wirkung der deuUchen 
linen. Gesdiiilze und Maschinengewehre war 
vernichteod. Der rechte Flugel der Verbundelen 
wurde von deraoslerreichiscli-ungarischen Kri'u- 
«er fiaiterin Elitabelk und dem deuLs<hen 
lanofieobol Jaguar »1rksam besrhossen Die 
4eut5chen Veriuste sollengeringsein. Die Japaner 
varteo Versiarkuogen aus Japan ab. 



Vfien, 6. Oklober. Amlljcii wird von geslern 
genoeidet Die Operatiooen in Russisch-Pulen und 
Galizien schreilen gunslig vorwarts. Schuller an 
Schulter kimplend warlen die deulschen- und 
feterreWiisrh-ungariscben Truppen den Feind 
TOO O^tow und Klimootow, gegen die Wcichsel 
zuruck In den Karpaten wurden die Russen am 
CzsokarpMS volbUndig geschlagen. 



Uadoo, «. Oktotter Der Daily Lkroniele be- 
ricbtet, dass in Aldershot rund < 36,000 Mann 
aller WanengaKungen ausgebitdet wurden. die. 
sobaid lertig, an die Front abg^hen sollen Die 
Ausbiidung mache trolz glanzender Anstrengun- 
gen olchl den gebOhrenden Fortschrill. da die 
Truppen -ungenugend ausgenislel seTen Die 
Zetlung erbiltel deshalb die L'nterstulzung des 
Publikums und bemerku dass beispielsweise kein' 
cinzigerOffizier der ersten Armee Lord Kitcheners 
eicen Feldstecher besiize, Cebrauchi wfirden 
HeiiK:3n.Slrump(e.Taschentucber.S(-tHjhrienien, 
Schrelbmalerial. Trommeln und Pleilen tur die 
schot;i9chen Reginienler 



Brussel. 7 Oklober Dem Fuhrer einer Rad- 
fchrer-Truppe wurde bei Hennujeres eine 
Instruktion fur die Fuhrer der sogenannten Zer- 
glonings-Detachements abgenommen, in der es 
o. a htfcsl • Falsche. Nachrichten verbreilen. 
AusKhiflung der Englander fa Antwerpen und 
t^ ftussen id Calais • 



Diis Oemscle HIMisreneit 



Rerlln, 6 octobre Le correspondani special 
de Xi^trliiifr Ztituny, de midi, aiioonce i|ue 
lurs du premier assaul conire Ics |>ositiuii> de 
rinranlerie, a Tsinglau. les Japonais et Auglais 
r^unis fureiil repousses avec uoe perte de 
lt.500 boninies. LeITel <!<s mines, canons ei 
jnilrailleuses, lut elTrayanl. Lailc druite des 
allies Tui atlaquee a^oc sucees par rartillerie 
(lu croiseur austro-Longruis HaineriH Elimbelh 
el de la canuriniere alleniande Jayuar. Les 
pertes allcniaiides seraieni de pcu d'iiupor- 
tanre ics J,ipun8is attendenl du seceurs du 
Japon 



Vienne, 6 octobre. De source olficielle, on 
annonce a ia date d'hier. I.«s operations en 
Pologne russe et en Galicie avancent avoc 
SUCCC8. CAte a c6ie. lea troupes allemaniiea el 
ausiro-hongroises combaiteni el ont rejeic 
"ennemi d'0|>aiow et de kiimoiitow, vers la 
Vistule. Dans les Carpathes, ies Busses ont cle 
completement baltus au passage d'l'szokar 



Londres, 6 <K:iobre. Le Daily Lhroniele 
annonce qua Aldershot. en cliiiTres ronds. 
ISS.OOO miliciens apparienanl a toules les 
armes. seraieni piepiires pour pariir a I'armee 
les quils seraieni prels. Cependanl. la pqe- 
paraiioiA en depil des plus brillaiitselTorts, ne 
donnerait pas ilc resullal satislaisanl, les 
troupes elanl insufiisainmenl cquipees. Le 
lournal (ail, par cuasetjueni. appel aa con- 
cours du public el Tail reinarquer que, par 
excmple, aucuii offi(uer do la premiere armee 
de.Lord Kiuliener ne possede des jumelles de 
campagiie II nian(|ue, ei outre, des chemises, 
des chaussetles, des miuchoirs, des lacels de. 
soulicrs, du papier ci de quoi ecnre, des 
tambours el lifres pour les regiments ecossais. 



Rruxelles. 7 octobre Au chel d'.une troupe 
de cyciisies beiges a eie enleve. pr'es de llen- 
nuyercs, une insinnlioii ecrile, deslinee aux 
chefs des deiachemeiiisdiis « de deslruclion » 
ou il esl dil eiiire milre s clioses «• Kcpandre 
de fausses nouvelles dcbarquemenl des 
A«(;lais a Viivers, des Russes a Calais i 



kllNftneiiiiitalnl. 



Berlijn, 6 October. De bijzondere ../rrespon> 
dent van de Berlitter Zeitung an) Millag ver- 
meldt, dat l>ij den eerstf n storm op de infanle- 
rieposities le Tsingtau tfe vereenigde Japanners 
en Engelscheo met een verlies van 9,500 man 
leruggeslagen N«erden. De uitwerking der duit- 
sche mijnen. geschutten en machinegeweren 
was verniclend. De recbtervleugel der bondge- 
noolenwerd door den ooslenrijkscb-hongaarschen 
kruiser Kai»erin Elitabelk en den duilsclien 
kanonnenboot Jaguar, mel goed gevolg be* 
selK>len. De duitsclie veriiezen zoudeo gering 
zjjn. De iafwnners verwadileD versterlungen uit 



Weeoen, 6 October. Ambtelijk wordl gisterm 
vemieldt De operaties in russiscta Polen en 
Gali«i« vorderen met goeden uilslag. Scbouder 
aan scbouder kampend, wJerpen de duitsche en 
oosU;nrijk.sch-hongaursche Iroepen den vijand 
van Opalow en K.limonlow tegen -de Weichsel 
lerug. In de Carpatben werden de Russen aan 
Uzsokarpas geheel leruggeslagen 



Londen, 6 October. De Daily Chronicle ver- 
meldt, dat le .Aldershot rond 436,000 man van 
alle soorlen van wapens gevormd worden, diei 
zoodra gedaan, op het front zullen atgaan. De 
vorming zou trots schillerende inspanningen niel 
den behoorlijken vooruilgang nemen. daar de 
troepen niel de noodige uilrusting hebben Het 
dagblad verzoekl daarom de'ondersteuning van 
het publiek en zegl onder andere, dat geen enkel 
odicier van he! eersle leger van l^rd Kitchener 
eenen veldkijkerbezit.Er is belioelleaan heniden. 
kousen. zakdoeken. schoenriemen, schrijlmale- 
riaal, Ironimels en pijpen voor de sciiolsche 
regimenlen 



Brussel, 7 October De aanvoerder van 
eenen troep wiclrijders, weril bij Hennuyeres 
eene instruciie voor de chefs der zooge- 
naamdeverw.^estingsdeiachemenienonlaomen, 
waarin onder andere gezegd wordl: (Vtiscbe 
iiicliliii)(eii verbreideu. Onlscheping der 
I'^iigelsclieii.ie Anhverpeii en der Russen. 16 
Calais » 



RclDsittliltotaunl 



94 



THE GERMANS " EXPLAIN " THE BOMBARDMENT OF 
RHEIMS CATHEDRAL. 

Extracts from the ** News published by the German 
Government/' 

"Berlin, September 23rd. (Official communique of yesterday evening.) — 
The French Government stated that the bombardment of Rheims Cathedral 
was not a military necessity. In reply, we may say that, after the French 
had made Rheims, by means of strong ramparts, their principal centre of resist- 
ance, they forced us to attack the town by every necessary means. By special 
orders of the German Higher Command, the cathedral was to be spared as 
long as the enemy did not make use of it for his own ends. From September 
2oth, the white flag which floated on the cathedral was respected by us. In 
spite of these facts, we were able to ascertain that an observation post was 
established on the towers, which explained the excellent effect of the enemy's 
shooting on our infantry. From that time it became necessary to destroy 
this post, and this was done by the fire of our field artillery. 

"Our heavy artillery was still not permitted to take part in this action. 
Since the post has been abolished we have been able to observe that the towers 
and the exterior fa9ades of the cathedral are not destroyed (sic) and that only 
the roof was destroyed by flames. Our troops therefore did not press their 
attack more than necessary (sic). 

"The responsibility therefore rests with the enemy, who tried to make use 
of the venerable edifice while putting it under the protection of the white flag." 



TRANSLATION. 

News published by the German Government. 

"Berlin, October 6th. — The special correspondent of the Berliner Zeitiing 
(noon edition) reports that during the attack against the infantr>^ positions at 
Tsingtau the Japanese and English were repulsed with the loss of 2,500 men. 
The effect of the mines, guns, and machine-guns was terrible. The right wing 
of the Allies was attacked with success by the Austro-Hungarian cruiser 
Kaiserin Elisabeth and the German gunboat Jaguar. The German losses 
were unimportant. The Japanese are awaiting reinforcements from Japan." 

" Vienna, October 6th. — Yesterday's official communique states : 'The 
operations in Russian Poland and in Galicia are proceeding successfully. The 
German and Austro-Hungarian troops are fighting side by side, and have 
driven the enemy from Opatow and Klimontow towards the Vistula. In the 
Carpathians the Russians have been completely defeated in the Uzsokar Pass.' " 

"London, October 6th. — The Daily Chronicle reports that at Aldershot 
135,000 soldiers, in round figures, belonging to different branches of the service, 
are prepared to go to the front as soon as they are ready. The preparations, 
however, do not make good progress, in spite of the most brilliant efforts, and 
the troops *are not sufficiently equipped. The paper makes an appeal to the 
public and states that, for example, none of the officers of Lord Kitchener's 
first army possess field-glasses. Shirts, socks, handkerchiefs, and bootlaces 
are also lacking, as w^ell as writing materials, and drums and fifes for the Scotch 
regiments." 

"Brussels, October 7th. — Written instructions have been seized from the 
commander of a troop of Belgian cyclists, intended for the commanding officers 
of the so-called 'destructive' detachments. Amongst other instructions were 
the following : ' Spread false news — landing of the English at Antwerp and 
the Russians at Calais.' " 

95 



WAR NEWS PLACARDED BY THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT IN 
BRUSSELS.— OCTOBER i6th. 1914- 



VerOffentlichungen des 
deutschen Gouvernements. 



Beriin. ««. Oktobw. (Amirk-hf Meldung von 
gesJern Miuag.) Bei Airtwerpen warden im gsn- 
len 4000 bis 5000 Gefangene gemacht. fis isl 
anraDehmen. dass in ofichsler Zeil nooh eine 
fTOsse ZaI beJgischer Soldaleo. welche Zivilklei- 
4ung angezogen liaben, dingiest gemaehl wird. 
Rach NiKeilung des Konsuls von Tereeuzen sind 
e'.wa «0000 belgische Soldaleo und SOOO engli- 
K-'i: ic! hoMindischcs Gcbiet ubergetretefi, wo 
sie enlwaftnel wurdeo. Hire Flucht muss in 
grOssier Hast vor sich gegangen sein; hieriur leu- 
gsn die Massen weggeworfener Kleidersacke, 
tesonderv von der englischen Royal Naval Divi- 
sion. Die Kriegsbeule von Antwerpen isl gross; 
mindeslens 500 Geschutze, eine L'nmenge Muni- 
lioo, Massen von Satlein, Woylaehs, sehr viel 
Sanitatsmaterial, zahlreiche Kraltwagen, viele 
lokomoliven und Waggons, vier Millionen Kilo- 
gram Gelreide, viel Mehl, Kohlen, Flachs. Kir 
lOXillionen Mark Wolie.Kuprer.Silberim Werte 
ton etwa einer iialben Million Marl^ ein Pamer- 
Eisenbahnzug, mehrer« gefOlUe ^'frpfl^ungs- 
aige. grosse Viehbest&nde. 

Belgische und englische Schifle telanden sich 
nichi mehr in Antwerpen. Die beim Krie^us- 
bnich Im Halen von Antwerpen befindlichen 
^^ deuLsche Dampfer und 3 Segler siml mil einer 
Ausnahme vorhanden, jedotti wurden die 
Haschtnen unbrauchbar gemachl. Angebolirl und 
Tersenkt wurde nur der Dampfer Cm«'*«iom vom 
Norddeulschen Lloyd. Die grosse Hafenschleuse 
isl iniakt, ab^r zunachst durch mit Sleinen be- 

fchwerte vers«nkte ICahne nichl benutibar J>ie 

llatenanlagen sind unbeschadigt. 

Die Stadt Anlwerpen hat wenig gelilten; die 
BevOlkerung verhalt sich ruhig und scheint troh 
ju sein, dass die Tage des Schrekkens zu Ende 
sind, besonders da der Pobel bereits zu plfindern 
liegonnen halte. Die Resie der belgischen Arnnee 
liaben bei Annaherung unserer Trupp.en Gent 
si'hleunigsl geraumi! Die belgische Regierung 
icil Ausnahme des kriegsipinisterssolt sit-h nach 
Le Havre begeben haben 



Berlin. 46. Qkl»ber. (Amlliche .Meldung.) Die 
Angrifle derFranzosen in derGegend von Albert 
wurden unler erheblichen Verluslen Ifir sie 
abgewiescn. Sonstsind im'Weslen keine Veran- 
deningen. 

Im Oslcn isl der russtsche inH slarken Krallen 
■ilernommene Vorstoss aiif Oslpreussen als 
gescheitert anzaseben. Der Ahgrill unserer in 
Men Schiiller an Schuller mil den osler- 
rpiohischen lleere kamplenden Tnippen belindet 
sich im Fiirlsclireilen. Lnsere Tnippen slehen 
vor Warscliau. Ein mit elwa acht .\rnieekorps 
•us der l.inie Iwangorod-Warschnii (dM'F die 
Weii-bsel iinlernummener riissiscltor Vorsioss 
wurde aiif <ler ganzen IJnie unler s<-liw eien Vei- 
Insten ffir die Russen /uruckgeworlen. Die in 
russt«lienZeitungen verbreilelenticrrirlilerilier 
«lie erbeiileten deulsclirn Geschi'il/.c ei)ibchrt4i 
jedei- 



Nouvelles puHi^es par le 
Gouvernement allemand. 



R«rlin, 46 oclobre. (Commmicalioo offi- 
cielle du Quarlier G^oeril). A Anvers, entre k 
el 5,000 prisonniers onl ete ralts.II «9l * pre- 
sumer qu'endeans peu de temps ea^ora un 
grand nombre de soldau beiges, qni waKnt 
des v^iemenls civils, scfoct capture. IKaprte 
one communication du consul a Teroeozen, 
environ »0,000 soldals beiges et 4,000 aoglais 
ont paese eo terriloire hollandais oti ils ont 6te 
desarmes. Leor fciile doit avoir eii lieu eir 
pande hite ; en lemoignent lesgrandesinaases 
jelees de sacs a v^iemenis, nolamment jmf la 
division navale anglaise. Le butin de gnerrei 
Anvers est considerable: au moins 500 canons, 
une quantite immense de munitions, de selles, 
beaacoup d'objels pour It service sanilaire, de 
noinbreuses automobiles,des locomoiivesetdes 
wagons , 4 millions tlf kilos de bi^ beau- 
coup de Tarines, de charbon el de lin ; de la 
laine d'une vsleur de 10 millions de mark ; 
ducuivre et de rai^em-meial pour <|9 mil- 
lion de mark, uii train tlinde de chemin de 
fer ; plusieurs trains chirges ie provisions 
d'alimentalion ; de grandes quanlitcs de gros 
betail. 

II n'y avail plus de navires anglais ni beiges 
dans le port d'.Vnvers. Lts 34 vapebrs alle- 
inands et 3 voiliers presents a Anvers sm debut 
de la guerre y sonl toujours,a lexceptiog dun 
seul, mais leurs machines ont ete misesfaors 
d'usage, on les a pertorees. Seul le Gneitehau, 
du l>k>rddeutscher Lloyd, a cie coulc. La 

grando cclusc du port est inlncte, mais provi. 

soirement inulilisable parce qu on y a fail som- 
brer des barqueites chargees de pierres. Les 
installations du port n'onl pas ete eodoin- 
raagees. 

La ville d'Anversa peu souifert.- La popula- 
tion garde lecalmeet paraitheureusedeceqne 
les journees de terreur soienl (inies. La popu 
lace avail d'ailleurs cumnienca a piller. Les 
debris de I'armce beige onl abandonne, eo 
toute hite, la ville de Gand a lapproche dg uos 
troupes. Le gouvernement beige se serail 
retire, a I'exception du ininistre de la guerre, 
au Havre. 



Mededeelingen van het 
duitsche GouveniemeDt. 



Beriijo, 16 October. (Ambtelijke melding v«a 
gisteren middag.) Bij Antwerpen werden Int 
geheel 4,000 tot 5,000 gevangenen gemaakt. 
Hel is aan le nemen, dat in de naasle lijd oog 
een grool gelal belgische soldalen, die burger- 
lijke kleeding aangelrokken hebben, opgeslolen 
worden. Volgens eene miededeeling van deo 
konsul in Terneuzen zijn ongeveer 80,000 bel- 
gische soldalen en 2,000 engclsche op hollandsch 
gebied overgclreden, waar zij ontwapend wer- 
den. Huone vlucht moet in de grootste haasi 
geschied zijn; dit beluigen de jroole menigte 
weggeworpen zakken met kicedingstnkken, in 
t bijzooder der engelsche Royal iVaval Division. 
De krijgsbuit van Antwerpen is groot ; len minsie 
500 geschullen, eene groole n)enigte munitie, 
eene massa zadels VVovlachs, zeer veel male- 
riaal voor den gezondheidsdiensl, lalrijke krachl- 
wagens, vele locomolieven en waggons, 4 millioen 
kilogram graan, veel meel, steenkolen, vlas, voor 
10 millioen Mark wol, koper, zilver in waarde 
van onitreol een hall millioen Mark, een 
panLser-spoor9reg:trein, meerdere gevulde ver- 
plegingstreineo, eene groole hoeveelheid vee. 

Belgische en engelsche schepen bevonden 
zich niet meer in Antwerpen. De 34 duitsche 
stoombooten en 3 zeilscbep^n, die bij hel ull- 
breken van den oorlog in e haven van Ani* 
werpen waren, zijn, met u^ oodering van een. 
voorhanden ; de niachieneh echter werden 
oobruikbaar gemaakl, de stoombodt Gneiiewtu 
van den Norddeutschen Lloyd heett men aaoge- 
boont «a lateo zinkeo. De groole haveiksluis is 
intact, maar allereerst door verzonken booten. 
die met steenen bezwaard (Werdeo, niet te 
gebruiken, De bavenaanlegplaalsen zijn niet 
heschadgd. 

De siad Antwerpen heelt weinig geleden; 
de bevoUing is ruslig en schijnt zich le verheu- 
gen, dat ie scbrikdagen voorbij zijn, vooral om- 
dat hel gtpeupel reeds 'begon le plunderen. De 
resten vaa hel belgische leger hebben bij hel 
naderen onzer troepen in der haasl Gent oul- 
ruimd. De belgische Regeering, mel uitzondering 
van den ntinister van oorlog, heejt zidi naar 
Le Havre fcegeven. 



Berlin, 16 oclobre. Lesattaques des Frau- 
is aux environs dWIbert ont ele 
avec de grandes peries pour les 



I' ran(,-ais. 



k Mi\i IMoDitrDeiil. 



(^i$ aux environs dWIbert ont ele repoussees 

F' 

.\ucun autre changement a I'ouest. 
' A Test, la marclie en avant des Russcs, 
ertlrepris(»avec des lorces considerables vers 
la Prusse orientale, peut etre considoree com- 
inc ayant ecliooc. L'atlaque deoos trou|M;!> en 
Pologne, -oil el les iutlent cote a cole avec nos 
allies autrichiens, progressc toiijoiirs. >os 
troupes se trouveht devantVarsovie.M marchc 
(■II avani eiiireprise par Ivs Russes avec K corps 
irarjiioc. venanl de la ligne irivvangorod- 
Varsovie sur la Vislule, a ele repoussce sur 
liiiitc la ligiic avec de grandes perlos pour les 
Blisses. Les liruils rcpandtis par la presse 
iii.>ise ail sujel de In capture de caniiiis alle- 
inaiids iii°aiii|iiciil ilc roiideinriii. 



leGNniilililieieii. 



Berlijn, 16 October. (.\nib(etijke melding.) De 
aanvallen der Franschenin de streek rood .VJberl 
werden onderrroDte verliezen voor hen lenig- 
geworpen .Viiderszijn in 'I Weslen geene veran- 
deringen 

In l oosU'ii is hel iiissische niel slerke kra»lh 
len ondeinoiiien viN>rgaan op Oostpruissen ills 
niishikl te iiatizien. lie aanval onzer Irxepen in 
Polen, He schouder aan scliouder Rtet liel 
ooslenrijksche leger kanipen, maakt goed< 
vorderiiigen Oiize lioepen slaan voor NVai- 
siliaii. Ken nissisrlKv eerste simil, die mel 
imilrenl H legerkoriwii nil de lijii Inwangontd- 
>\ arshaii omt de » I'irhsel )iiiderii)inien we'rd, 
werd op de uelKfle liJH <>ii«|er /.ware verlitv.eo 
\oorife Kusseii leruggeWtirpon. |»e geruchlen. 
die in riissiselie dapldftlvii verspt-ciil wurden. 
over de M>ro\er<le miiisdir gt^Mliuiiin zijn \an 
ieijeiv U'wijzeii <inll»lo«t. 



ilttciilitarDeiil 



96 



TRANSLATJON 

News published by the German Government. 

"Berlin, October i6th. (Official communique from General Head- 
quarters.) — Between four and five thousand prisoners were taken at 
Antwerp. It is expected that shortly a large number of soldiers 
who are wearing civilian clothes will be captured. According to 
information received from the Consul at Terneuzen, about 20,000 
Belgian and 2,000 English soldiers have crossed into Dutch territory, 
where they have been disarmed. They evidently fled in haste, as is 
shown by the numbers of haversacks thrown away, especially those 
belonging to the English Royal Naval Division. The war booty 
taken at Antwerp is considerable. At least 500 guns, an immense 
quantity of munitions, saddles and medical stores ; numbers of 
motor cars, many locomotives and wagons ; 4 million kilos of corn, 
a lot of flour, coal and flax ; 10 million marks' worth of wool ; copper 
and silver to the value of about half a million marks ; an armoured 
train, several train-loads of provisions, and a great quantity of 
cattle. 

"There were no English or Belgian ships in the port of Antwerp. 
The 24 German steamers and three sailing ships which were in 
Antwerp at the beginning of the war are still there, except one, but 
their machinery has been put out of order. Only the Gneisenau, 
a liner belonging to the North German Lloyd, was sunk. The great 
harbour lock is intact, but is temporarily useless owing to boats full 
of stones having been sunk in it. The port installations have not 
been damaged. 

"The town of Antwerp has not suffered much. The population 
is calm and seems glad that the days of terror are over. The populace 
had, however, begun to pillage. The remnants of the Belgian Army 
abandoned the town of Ghent on the approach of our troops. The 
Belgian Government, with the exception of the Ministry of War, 
has retired to Le Havre." 

"Berlin, October 16th. — French attacks in the neighbourhood of 
Albert have been repulsed with heavy losses for the French. No 
other changes in the West. 

"In the East, the Russian offensive undertaken in force against 
East Prussia may be considered as checked. The attack of our 
troops in Poland, where they fight side by side with our Austrian 
allies, is making progress. Our troops are before Warsaw. An 
offensive on the Vistula undertaken by eight Russian Army Corps 
coming from the I wangorod- Warsaw line was repulsed on the whole 
front with great losses to the Russians. The rumours spread by the 
Russian Press as to the captures 'of German guns are without 
foundation. 

"The GkRMAN Military Government." 

97 



HOW THE GERMANS TOLD THE POPULATION OF 
BRUSSELS ABOUT THE BATTLE OF THE YSER. 

" The battle of the Yser began on October i8th and finished on 
the 31st. The Belgian Army, reduced to 48,000 rifles, resisted alone, 
except for the assistance of 6,000 French Marines, until the 23rd, 
when the first units of the French Grossetti Division arrived as 
reinforcements. The inundation of the land between the Dixmude- 
Nieuport Railway and the Yser dikes forced the Germans to- retire 
definitely on November ist." * 

Extracts from the ** News published by the German 
Government/' 

"Berlin, October igth. {Official communiqui of the iSth.) — In 
the Western theatre of war there was comparative quiet yesterday ; 
the situation remains unchanged." 

"Berlin, October 21st. (Official.) — German troops advancing 
along the coast of Ostend met enemy forces in the Yser sector, near 
Nieuport. They have been in contact with them since yesterday. 
Yesterday, also, enemy attacks west of Lille were repulsed with 
great losses." 

"Berlin, October 22nd. {Official communiqui of yesterday 
morning.) — On the Yser Canal our troops are still in violent conflict 
with the enemy. The latter is supported by his artillery from the 
sea, north-west of Nieuport. An English torpedo-boat has been 
put out of action by our artillery." 

"Berlin, October 2^rd. — The fighting on the Yser Canal continues. 
Eleven English warships are supporting the enemy artillery. East 
of Dixmude, the enemy has been repulsed. . . ." 

"Berlin, October 24th. {Yesterday's midday official communiqui.) 
— On the Yser Canal we have gained some successes. South of 
Dixmude, our troops have advanced." 

"Berlin, October 2^th. — The fighting in the sector of the Ypres- 
Yser Canal is extremely desperate. In the north, we have succeeded 
in crossing the canal with large forces." 

"Berlin, October 26th. {Official communique from General 
Headquarters.) — The Ypres-Yser Canal has been crossed by us in 
force, after desperate fighting, on October 24th, between Nieuport 
and Dixmude," 

" Berlin, October 26th. {Yesterday's midday official communique.) 
— Yesterday morning our troops possessed themselves of some 



• See L. van der Essen : The Invasion and the War in Belgium. London 
Fisher Unwin, 191 7. 

98 



enemy ground, attacking the enemy, who defended himself des- 
perately. The English squadron, which took part in the fighting, 
was forced by the fire of our heavy artillery to retire. Three ships 
received direct hits. The whole squadron remained out of sight 
during the afternoon of October 25th." 

"Berlin, October 2glh. {Yesterday evening's official cofnmunique .) 
— Fighting continues between Nieuport and Dixmude. The Belgians 
have received considerable reinforcements. Sixteen Enghsh warships 
took part in the fighting on our right wing, but their fire was 
unsuccessful." 

'* Berlin, October ^oth (Yesterday morning's official communique.) 
— Our offensive south of Nieuport is slowly progressing." 

"Berlin, October 30/A. [Official communique of this morning.) — 
Our offensive south of Nieuport has been continued with success." 

"Berlin, November 2nd. {Official communique.) — In Belgium, 
operations have become difficult owing to the inundations produced 
by the destruction of the locks of the Ypres-Yser Canal, near 
Nieuport." 



99 



PLACARD BY THE GERMAN AUTHORITIES AT CUGNON, INFORM- 
ING THE INHABITANTS OF THE TAKING OF ANTWERP THE 
FLIGHT OF KING ALBERT AND THE TAKING OF FORTS 
BETWEEN TOUL AND VERDUN.— OCTOBER, 1914. 





e 



SIEGEANT A CUGNON 



fait savoir aux habitants 
ce qui suit : 



Depuis quelques temps 11 nous a lrap[)(' (jue les liabitants dv i»os 
environs ne sont inlorines de la veritable inarebe <les arniees et Tac- 
rion niilitaire au theatre de guerre. 

Pour prevenir des illusions il faut faire savoir aux habitants que 
ies forts d'Anvers Torniant I'eneeinte ont ete pris par les troupes alle- 
mandes. n*aj)res les journaux de llollande le Roi des Beiges s'est vu 
oblige de passer en Angleterre de merae la ligne etendue des forts 
entre Toul et Verdun eonstruite pour arreter Tinvasion alleniande 
est tond)ee entre les mains des Allemands et c'est deja il y a quelques 
jours que les troupes allemandes ont IVanehie eettc ligne pour se di- 
nger vers Paris. 

Par of'ffre et /war coptc vonforint, 

Le Bourgniestre. 

DELMUE. 



100 



A REGIME OF LIES. 

t 

"It is scarcely worth while to point out the falseness of the 
news concerning the flight of King Albert and the piercing of the 
line of forts between Verdun and Belfort in October, 1914. 

"The Burgomaster of Cugnon (Luxemburg), M. Delmue, knew 
nothing of the publication of this placard. The German authorities 
used his name without even consulting him. 

"They did not, however, fail to make the commune pay the 
printing expenses." 

(Information furnished by M. Jean M assart, Vice-Director of the 
Faculty of Science of the Royal Academy of Belgium, in his book 
" Comment les Beiges risistent d Vinvasion allemande," pp. 287-8.) 

WARNING BY THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF 

LI'EGE. 

To THE Population of Liege and the Surrounding District. 

"Considering the growing successes of the German troops, we 
cannot understand why the people of Li^ge can be so credulous as to 
believe the absurd and frivolous news published by the factories of 
lies established at Li^ge. Those who busy themselves in circulating 
such news are exposed to heavy punishments. They are playing a 
dangerous game in taking advantage of the credulity of their fellow- 
citizens and in urging them to ill-considered action. 

" The reasonable population of Li^ge will, of course, be opposed 
to any attempts of this sort. Otherwise they will be exposed not 
only to the most serious disillusionment, but also to the ridicule of 
all intelligent people. 

"Von Kolewe, 
" Lieut enant-General and Governor of the 
" fortified district of Li^ge. 
"It is forbidden to tear down this placard or to cover it up." 



TRANSLATION, 

The German Authorities installed at Cugnon inform the 
inhabitants of the following : — 

"We have been struck by the fact that for some time the 
inhabitants of the district are not informed of the real advance of 
the armies and the military actions in the theatre of war. 

"To dispel illusion it must be made known that the forts 
surrounding Antwerp have been taken by the German troops. 
According to Dutch papers, the King of the Belgians has been obliged 
to cross to England. Also the Hne of forts between Toul and Verdun, 
which were constructed to repel a German invasion, have fallen 
into the hands of the Germans, and some days ago the German 
troops had already pierced this line on their way towards Paris. 
"By Ord'^r : Copy Guaranteed Correct. 

"The Burgomaster, 

"Delmue." 

lOI 



WAR NEWS PLACARDED BY THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT IN 
BRUSSELS.— JANUARY 23RD, 1915. 



7er6fientlichungen des 

deutschen 
General-Gouyernements. 



Berhn.23. Januar. (Amtllche 
beiiiellHu«.) 

Wetlieker Kriegtaekauptatx 
Peindlicbe Pieger uarlen g«>slern ohne Erfolg 
bei Gem und Zoebrdgge Bomben ab. 

ZwLscheo Smiain und Perthes ndrdlich des 
Ligei-s \on ChAlons grifl der Feind gestern Nacb- 
miiltig an, der AngrilT brach unter unscrn Feuer 
nisaninu>n;der Feind fluchtele in setae Grtben 
zuniik. Iin Argonn>rwaldp erobcrton unsore 
Truppen westlich Foniaine la .Miiie cine femd- 
liche Sielliing, iiiacbten 3 Ofliziere. 8i5 JIann zu 
Gernngenon und erbeulcten 4 Maschinengewehre 
Mordwestlich Pom a Mousson burden i fraUzii- 
siscue AngrKTe unter schweren Verluslcn fur den 
Feind abgeschlagcn . Bei den Kampfen zur Zuriick- 
gewinnung unsererGraben wurdcn dcm Feind 
sell dem 21. Januar 7 Ge!«hQlze und i Mascbi- 
neiigewTjhr abgenommen. Bei Wisembach wurdcn 
Alpenjager zuruckgeworlen. Mehrere miictilige 
Angriffe de> Feindes auf Harlmannswciicrkopf 
blicben erfolglos. 

Oetllichtr kriegttckauptaU. 

In Osipreussen nichis Ncues. 

Ira nordlichen Polen, in der Gegcnd •von 
Przasnysz wurde ein unbedcutcndcr russischcr 
AngrilT abgewipsen. Aus Blinno und Gojsk wur- 
den die Russen herausgcworten. Sthwachere auf 
Sz.lal-Gomy vorgehende nissische Ableilungen 
wurd?n rum Ruekzug gez>»T)ngen. Unscrc An- 
giifle gegen den Szucba-Abschnitt scjirillen fort. 
In der Gegend von Ra«a, wcsUicb Szenciny 
lebhafle Artllleriekampfe. 



Mededeelingen van het 

duilsche 
Generaal-Gouvernement 



Be'liin. 23 Janoari. (AroWlijke mel- 
ding van beden middag.) 

WuteHjk krijgiveU. 

Vijandelgke vliegers wierpen gister vruchle- 
loos by Gent en Zeebnigge bonimen neer. 

Tusscheo Souain en Pcribes ten Noorden het 
kamp van Chalons vici de vyand gister namiddag 
aan, de slormloop stuitli; at op ons vuur. de 
vyand vluchlte in zijne lo(ii)grachtcn terug. In het 
Argonnerwoud veroverden onze troepen ten 
VVesien Nan Fontaine-la-.Milte eene vjjandelijke 
s(elling, maakten 3 ofBciorcn 8i3 man lot ge\ an 
genen en 4 machiengeweren buii. Ten Noord' 
Weslen van Pont-a-Mousson werden 2 Fransche 
aanvallen onder zware \ iTliezen voor hen afge- 
weerd. By de gevechten lot licrovering van onze 
loopgrachten werdonden vyand sedertSI Januari 
7 kanonnenen I machieiisteweerafgenomen. By 
Wisembach werdcn alpenj.igers leruggeworpen. 
Vorschcidene machlige aaiivallcn van den vijand 
legcn Hartmannsweilerkop waion te Ncrgccfs 



Ooiteti'f'k krifgsveld. 

In Oosl-Pruisen niels oieuws. 

In Noord-Polen in dt slreek van Przasnysz 
\serd een onbeduidcnde Ru.>isisctic aanval afge 
weerd. Lit Blinno en (Jnjsk werden de Russen 
verdrevcn. Zwakkere on Szllal-Gorny aanruk- 
kende Russische afdeelingen werdcn tot den 
temgloeht gedwongen. Onie aanvallpn tegen den 
Szucha-hoek gingen vooruit. In de sireek van 
Rawa, ten Weste van Szenciny levcndig gcsehut- 



Z irich, 23. Jannar. Oborst Miillci schil- 
d;rl in der fl/euen Zurieher Zeitung die umsidi- 
t on und mil grosslcr Sorgfalt geschaflcnen 
hygienischen Aniagen an der deiK.schenStelhings- 
fronl. Die Entwasseningsfrage nehmc dcii ersten 
J'laly. bei der Aniage der Schul/cngraben ein; 
glaftzend sei aiich die reichliilu- gesunde ErftSfi- 
rung der Truppen und dercn Ausslaliun^ mit 
warmer Lntcrkleiduiig. was vves(>nllich ziir Er- 
hallung und Fordcrung des GcsuiMllieilS7iislandi'S 
beilnige. Div Leule liaben meist gerade/ii ein 
Wiihendes Au>sehen, aus dec Heimal (licst der 
Strom der Liebesgaben unaufhflrlicb. EIne \ cr- 
nOndige Ab\teschclung des nicnsti-s zwischen 
Marsch- Exerciren und Pionierarbeit lut ein iibri- 
g:'S iim die Mannscbaflifi b<'i gulcr Gesiindheit 
und Slimmung /u crh:il(en In eincni .Masse wie 
man ev im Fride nicht fur nmglicb halien solllo, 
«irdfiir lliidrgclegcnheil gcsorgl MulliTschlicssl: 
l!rr frischc frolilicbe soldaliM-lie Geisi, die gute 
Kamer;idMhafl, das anslandige Belra^en und die 
gull' lialtung des deul>rben Soldaleii im Felde 
nirisMUjcdciii aufmcrksanvn Be..ba«lilir angc- 
iiehm in dii- Augen fallen. FelNcnfell isl die Zu- 
Mn>ir|il und derGUnhc an Siegbeidcm Ui/Un 
.M:iiin(;ein<-\on sofcheni Ccisi bcsci-lie Tmppe 
isi uniiT dff Fiihning \oii rim-m fahigcn und 
lidifliilM-wusMiii Ofli/ierkoriis wii- dem di-ul- 
Nhrii, lien gi'isMen Aufgaln-n t-'i" adibcn. 



Sistaral-llmnilii6el|iei 



Zurich, 23 Januari Kolonel Miillcr be- 
scbrijft in de IVtue Zuriscier Zeitung de omzlcll- 
lige en allerzorgvuldi.gst aingelegde gezondheids- 
inrifhlingen in het Duitirhe^ siellingsfront. Het 
droogbuuden van de Unpgrachten nren)t de 
e^le zorg in: schillerdid noeml hij ook de 
iTjki^ijke gezondc xoediiif der troepen en hun 
uiimsling met warm oidergoed, wat degelyk 
bijdmagi lol het onderboi<cn en bevorderen van 
den gezondh<;idsl(>esi;mi\. De manschnppen heb- 
l)en doorgaans een bioolind uilcrlijk en uit he! 

aderland siroomen maarde liefdegaven onon- 
derbroken toe. Een versianllge alwissieling in den 
dienstlus.schen inareheerenpxerceerenen pionier- 
werk doet.wal nogonlbreelt cm de krijgslieden 
in gofde gezondheid en stfjnming le bouden. In 
i-cn omvang als men het vor een onmogeiljlvheid 
jn het front zou hotiden, witdt voor badgelegen- 
heid gezorgd .Miiller besliiic he frisch-vioolijke. 
soldatengecsl, het goed kaoeraadschap, de fat- 
soenlijke omgang en dc goide houding van den 
Duilschen soldaal in t veldmoelen iederen op- 
merkzaam garicslaande aagenaam in 'I oog 

>opcn. Rotsvasl Is het veiii»ii\M n en hel geliMif 
in de zege lot btj den laaLslcrtnan ; (>en leger- met 
zulken geest bczlcid is oner leiding \an een 
bekwaam en plirhthewusl jTieierkorps aK bet 
l)iiit.S(-hc tegen de groolste ooeilijkheden opgc- 
wassen. 



HelGniil-lliiiTcitHiiiStliit 



Nouvelles pnblifies par 

le Gouvernement G6n6ral 

allemand* 



Berlin, 23 .janvltf1r.l(CoaiaiiaIcation o(l* 
cielle d'aujourd'hui ra'idi.) 

ThMre de la guerre di rOue»t. 

Des avialeurs ennemls onl laoc4 bier, MM 
succes, des bombes pris de Gand et de G«ai- 
brugge. 

Entre Souhain el Perthes, au nord du camp 
de Chalons, I'ehnemi lit bier apria-midi une 
aitaque;celle-ci secroula sous iiotre leu et 
I'ennemi s'enfuit dans ses trancb^es. Ihins la 
fordi des Argounes, nos troupes conquirenl i 
I'ouest de F'onlaine-la-Mitle une position enne- 
mie, fireni 3 officiers et 845 hommes prison- 
niers et gagn^rent 4 mitrailleuses. Au oord- 
ouest de Poni-a-Mousson, deux atiaques 
francaises furent repoq.ssees avec de grandea 
pertes pour I'eonemi. Dans les cooibals 
destines aregagner nos trancbees, nous avons 
enleve a lennemi, depuis le ii Janvier, 
7 canons el line mitrailleuse. A Wisembach des 
chasseurs alpins furenl rojeles. Plusieurs puis- 
santes aiiaaues de I'ennemi centre Hartmanns- 
weilerskopt rest^rent sans socc^ 

ThMire de la guerre de tbtL 

En Prusse orienlale, picn de nouveau. 

All nord dc la Pologne, dans la region de 
PrzaMiysz une altaque russe insignifiante a et6 
repoussee. De Blinno el Gojsk, les Russes fu- 
rent chasses. Des detachemenls russes plus 
faibles venant de Szital-Gorny furent forces dc 
<!e retirer. iVos aitatiues contre le secieur du 
Szucha «Tnt progrease. Dans la region de Rawa, 
a I'ouest de Szenciny, deviolents combats d'ar- 
tillerie sent engages. 



Zurich, 23 Janvier. Le cotonei 
deerit dans la Neue Zurieher Zeitung les mesure^ 
hygleniques prises avec la plus grande circonspeo 
lion et les plus grands soins au (WmiI de I'annee 
allemande. La question du drainage des eaux 
prend la premiiire place lors de I'^Ublissement de 
Iranchees; brillant est le systime de P'allmenU- 
lion abondante el saine des troupes el leur ^ui- 
pemenl avec des 50us-velements chauds, ce qui 
est es.senliel pour le mainlien d'un bon ^tsapi- 
taire. Les hommes onl pour la plupart la mlBC 
florissanle. De chez eox coule sans cesse le (leuve 
des a Dons de I' Amour)). Ln ralionel changement 
du service entre les marches, des exercices 
d'armes et le travail de genie conlribue a censer- 
au\ hommes la bonne sanle el la bonne 
hiimeur. A un point de vue qu on ne croirail pas 
possible en pleine guerre, la possibiliW de prendre 
des bains a ele realisee. .M. .Miiller lermine ainsi « 
Lespril frais el militaire, la bonne camaraderie, 
la lM)nne condiiile el lallilude eorrecte el bonn^te 
des >oldals allemands dans la eampagne doivenl 
6lre rcmarquees avecjoie par lout observateur 
serieux Ferme coiiimeun roc sonl la conviclioa 

la foi en la victoire jusque chez le dernier 
hoiiime; line troupe animec de pareilss^-ntimenls 
el placee sou> la conduile dofficiers capables el 
consciiiils de Uiirs devoirs lelle que I'armee all^ 
maiide est a la hauteur des Inches les plus ele vees. 



ItGoiinHlllMtiiBelpiiK. 



lo; 



HOW THE GERMANS DESCRIBED THE FIRST BATTLE OF YPRES 
TO THE PEOPLE OF BRUSSELS. 

"Our troops advanced successfully in the direction of Ypres." 

"East of Ypres, our troops advanced after violent fighting." 

"North of Ypres, the enemy received reinforcements, but this did not 

prevent our troops making progress at several points," 
"Near Ypres the battle is undecided. South-east of Ypres our troops 

made some progress." 
"Near Ypres, the German troops yesterday made some progress." 
"Near Ypres, the situation is the same as on the 27th." 
"Near Ypres, the battle continues, and is still undecided." 
"The attack on Ypres is slowly progressing." 
"Near Ypres, our troops are still advancing." 

"In the course of our attack on Ypres we have again gained some ground." 
"Our attacks on Ypres are still advancing." 
"Near Ypres, our attacks are progressing." 

"Our attacks on Ypres are going on slowly but successfully." 
"Our offensive N.W. and S.W. of Ypres are progressing favourably." 
"Our attacks near Ypres continued yesterday." 
' ' In spite of the most determined resistance, our attacks on Ypres are 

making slow but uninterrupted progress." 
"Our attacks on Ypres yesterday made slow progress." 
"In the region east of Ypres our troops made some progress." 
"Our attacks advanced slowly south of Ypres and in West Flanders." 



October 


24th .. 


October 


25th . . 


October 


26th .. 


October 


27th .. 


October 


28th .. 


October 


29th .. 


October 


30th .. 


November 


1st .. 


November 


2nd .. 


November 


3rd .. 


November 


4th .. 


November 


5th .. 


November 


6th . . 


November 


7th .. 


November 


9th .. 


November 


10th .. 


November 


nth . . 


November 


13th .. 


November 


15th .. 



TRANSLATION. 

News published by the German General Government. 

"Berlin, January 23rd. (Official communique of to-day, noon.) 

Western Theatre OF War. 

"Enemy aviators dropped bombs yesterday without success near Gent and Zeebrugge." 
(Probably means Gentbrugge.) 

"Between Souhain and Perthes yesterday the enemy made an attack. This collapsed 
under our fire, and the enemy fled back to his trenches. In the Argonne, our troops stormed 
a fortified post west of Fontaine la Mitte, making prisoners 3 officers and 243 men, and taking 
4 machine-guns. North-west of Pont-a-iVIousson, two French attacks were repulsed with great 
losses to the enemy. During attempts by the enemy to regain our trenches we took (since 
January 21 st) 7 guns and one machine-gun. At Wisembach the chasseurs-alpms were repulsed. 
Several attacks by the enemy on ilartmannsweilerkopf were unsuccessful." 

Eastern Theatre of War. 

"In East Prussia there is nothing to report. 

"In North Poland, near Przasnysz, . a slight Russian attack was repulsed. The Russians 
were driven out of Blinno and. Gojsk. Weak Russian forces coming from Szital-Gomy were 
obhged to retire. Our attacks against the Szucha sector are progressing. In the region of 
Rawa, west of Szenciny, violent artillery duels have taken place." 

"Zurich, January 2^rd. — Colonel Miiller describes in the Neue Zi'iricher Nachrichtung the 
very thorough hygienic measures employed on the German front. The question of water 
drainage is the first thing taken in hand" after the establishment of the trenches ; brilliant is 
also the method of providing the troops with good, wholesome food and warm underclothing, 
essential for the maintenance of good sanitary conditions. Nearly all the men look flourishing. 
From their homes comes a constant stream of 'Love-gifts.' A well-arranged division between 
marching exercise and pioneer work keeps the men in the best of health and spirits. In a way 
one would scarcely think possible in the field, opportunities for baths have been provided. 
Mr. Miiller concludes : 'The gay and soldierly spirit, the good comradeship, good conduct and 
splendid behaviour of the German soldiers in the field must be a pleasant sight for any careful 
observer. Firm as a rock is the conviction and faith in victory of every man. Troops animated 
with such a spirit, placed under the leadership of such capable and conscientious officers as the 
Germans, are equal to a task of the greatest magnitude.' 

"The General Government in Belgium." 



103 



PROCLAMATION BY THE BURGOMASTER OF LOKEREN. BY 

ORDER OF THE GERMAN AUTHORITIES, APPEALING TO THE 

INHABITANTS WHO HAVE LEFT TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. 

AND PROMISING RESPECT FOR THEIR LIBERTIES. 

OCTOBER 24TH, 1914. 




Op beve^ en met soedkeurjnr 'ler B- ;-oh- Fo-n-nan- ' 
clantur te Lokeren maakt ruch.biar en V .k" 

f I Oil ii I ti())r yMutr !i U iH I, !,M„!i , ^ it! ).,nii (li. M«n Si ! «o;f(i"ik I t , < 

1)1 .1 <(. : Si ,J w {)'ij» I, 7 i(l»< \(r« jSliUfim Imnl r<(l (in) . • t ? « l> t 'j.' i < s ' , 7, . 

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j /n f </"»"»/ <«' ')i,t rli li an-i hU nrup di if, 1 iich t n h ,1 U ^ orr I i 1 tiU I ",1,11 nmrnin 

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' h, tr ri liii 1 I I ( ^f 4 IJ hit »( (r l« il I (lit )i I {iilst'if m I'lul iii" «!i •>,! tkiitiisl ni ' 'in 
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; <!. ?>(l di' v<>r-!i.i.i|i vaij ilkoliiif en .illc Htfrkif tlr;iiik,ii }{ins( h xilidtlfi K 
[ " ! •:! (Iit iiiTlx'i^pii l»**p;j:i!(| wordt HiK-l^tuJi 1(1 Ojj H iiii •» i*o d- V '• 

ip- !•. lie >v«i!iii;t<^o J(> vrrlalcii n;i <lil iiiir lot U nut t <ii "» - 

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<s:ip -Kfi /iilhi) l.il.-r ;iaii liiKinn iMiJpnaatS t»TU({ bistiiii m.ik! i 
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du, 

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<iiii >,.N .; ..,,.. .ii.iakii- lijsl II' «ordrn ftt'^'^lirapl. , 

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.- nnoroilriilrr.^ d'lznr bii>-ilhit,vn •mlliinjn.triiftuiiidm »i,t nuiin' ij'Ulm' 1 1 1» ^f//^ »i> t 1/ rni ,^nini,i 

?: hi d.d. lturijemPe»lor der Slad rvrkliuirl tillf ili>>o m /n„kuiyin, omniddi-lhjk u<i d. it, ; ' tU , // dr t » 

%itriurlmiir m iirlioofit van nt %ijne ondcr/ioortgfm sUpU val omtnq tn hrt hflftnq ih r ojit ni ni f> o, dt ptt ^ 

■irrU'ghvid in uifl hit mivsl otn Itim -^ijnc taak le vi tgi m'ikk, iijUn 
Trn Stad\<uiii- r/ifi Lokiroii, op "ii OkUii<ir V^\ t ^^ 

vu.. m HEBBSaX. , 

From the town of Lokeren alone 600 civilians have been deported. 
From the canton of Lokeren about 3,000 inhabitants were removed. 

104 



TRANSLATION. 

TOWN OF LOKEREN. 

THE ACTING BURGOMASTER OF THE TOWN OF LOKEREN, 

By order and with the approbation of the German Kommandantur at Lokeren, informs 
the inhabitants that : — 

"I. It is highly desirable that all the inhabitants of Lokeren who are at present living 
out of the town should re-establish their households without further delay and come quietly 
home again. The German authorities wish for nothing better than to see the population 
begin their ordinary work again as soon as possible and to settle down calmly. They further 
give the assurance of their support and encouragement to all the inhabitants who act upon 
this advice. 

"Contrary to the rumours which have been falsely spread, the most solemn assurance 
is hereby given, above all, to all men of military age, that there can be no question of enrolling 
them in the German Arm^^ nor of depriving them of their liberty, on condition that they 
collaborate in the maintenance of order, as behoves good citizens. Only those men who 
belong to the Belgian Army will be treated as prisoners of war. 

" 2. Through the good offices of the Acting Burgomaster, passports may be procured 
from the German Kommandantur in the town. 

" 3. With a view to the return of the inhabitants from the Dutch frontier communes, 
passports will be issued to persons wishing to fetch their relations back from these communes. 
Again, contrary to false and unfounded rumours, the German authorities assure to all a safe 
and unhindered return to their homes. 

" 4. The use of motor-cycles and motor-cars is strictly forbidden. Those who infringe 
this regulation will be liable not only to the confiscation of their vehicles, but also to the 
danger arising from coming too near to the German sentinels and to the penalties inflicted 
for such offence. As for bicycles, the possessors of such machines may procure permits 
from the German authorities. This concession is to show the desire for conciliation expressed 
above, and in order to promote the rapid renewal of commerce and industry. As has already 
been stated, permits may be obtained at the Town Hall, through the intermediary of the 
Acting Burgomaster. 

"5. The men of mihtary age (between 17 and 36) are hereby warned that they may 
not remain permanently away from the town. Ofifenders are liable to be charged before the 
military tribunal, and their famihes will be held responsible. 

" 6. The sale of alcohol and all spirits is absolutely forbidden. 

"7. All pubUc-houses must be closed at 8 p.m. (Belgian time), and the inhabitants 
are forbidden to go out of their houses between 8 p.m. and 6 a.m. 

"8. All arms and ammunition still existing must be given up at the Town Hall before 
October 28th at latest. Any negUgence in this respect will be severely punished. 

"The arms will be restored later to their owners. In order to ensure the scrupulous, 
observance of this order, the military authorities retain the right to search the houses. 

" 9. All proprietors or possessors of carrier pigeons, or of any kind of pigeon which 
might act as carrier pigeon, are ordered to make, by October 28th at latest, a complete 
return of the number of their pigeons, as well as of the number and the date of the rings 
they are wearing. The pigeons thus registered will remain until further notice shut up in 
their pigeon-cot. Pigeons which have died or been killed must be brought to the Town 
Hall and their rings be given up, so that they may be crossed off the list. All pigeons wearing 
no rings or not declared on October 28th must be immediately killed. 

"Offenders will be punished with a^heavy fine or even with imprisonment. 

"The Acting Burgomaster of the town declares that all these measures will come into 
force immediately after the posting of this proclamation, and he hopes that all the people 
under his jurisdiction will observe them strictly, in the interests of order and of public 
safety, and also to help him in his task. 

" The Acting Burgomaster of the Town of Lokeren, 

" Toivn Hall, Lokeren, October 24th, 1914. " L. [...] Herbert." 

105 



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